easy chemistry.. quesiton
Scale up of a Lab Scale ReactionM
1. You will produce 100 metric tonnes of product per month.
2. Develop a basic process flow diagram for the industrial production of
synthesis step A to B in your multistep reaction assignment. The
process is not just the synthesis. It involves the raw material storage,
quantitative measuring of materials for reaction, reactions,
purification and final product storage for the entire industrial process.
3. Develop a Cause and Effect diagram (Fishbone / Ishikawa diagram) for
the scale up of the multistep reaction. We need to keep in mind the
the factors and variables that may have an effect on production.
4. Estimate the monthly production cost based on raw materials.
reaction (from M to N)
What you will submit
• A PowerPoint file with 3 slides
• Slide 1 – A process flow diagram of your scale up process from A to B as described in our
• Slide 2 – A fishbone diagram. Each Box must be a a box from your process flow diagram.
You will indicate for each step in the process what you do know about that process
(examples include: amounts of material, safety information, process information – temp,
pressure, reaction time, forklifts, hours per shift, ventilation, ppe, etc). You will also
include important questions about what you do not know about the process, but are
critically important to success/safety (temp, pressure, time, number of staff, etc)
• Slide 3 – A calculation of the cost of producing the 100 metric tonnes of product. This will
require you to back calculate the amounts of starting materials and reagents based on
the molar stoichiometric reaction from A to B. You will also show the amounts of
reagents and starting materials, waste products etc). You will copy and paste the excel
spreadsheet data into the 3rd powerpoint slide. These amounts of materials are to be
used in slide 2- amounts of material as mentioned above.
Things to consider in a Basic Process Flow Diagram
• Determine the main components of the overall process from start to finish (raw materials in to final products out).
• Order the activities.
• Choose the correct symbols for each activity (if possible).
• Make the connection between the activities.
• Indicate the beginning and end of the process.
• Review your process diagram. This is an iterative process and you are always looking for continuous improvement.
Basic process flow example. Includes all aspects from start to finish.
Very little detail of amounts, time, etc. This is what you are to develop.
Detailed process flow example. Does not includes all aspects from start
to finish. Detailed chemical reaction process variable for mass balance.
Do not develop this. This comes later in the process.
Industrial Process Flow
How do we scale something up?
Start with what we know and start to determine what we do not know.
We know we want to react A under some conditions to produce B. But what do we know about A, B and any
other catalysts or reagents? What do we know about the process conditions?
Look at SDS sheets as a starting point. They provide physical data and safety information that help determine
how to store and use the material. Know your chemicals.
Now that we know our chemicals, what we do not know? We need to ask ourselves a series of questions,
then more questions, then more questions until we have a flow in place.
Some questions to ask…
• Is the reagent(s) safe to handle?
• Is the product safe to handle?
• How do we store the reactants?
• Do we need to mix the reactants? How? Are they solid/liquid/gas?
• What are the reaction conditions?
Others? Anhydrous? Oxygen free?
• What volumes/mass are we dealing with? 100 tonne per month. How does this break down into an 8hr shift running continuously?
Go back to storage again. Do we store 100 tonnes of raw material for a month?
• How do we purify the product? Provide some examples that could be used.
• How do we store the products. How much can we store given that we are also storing raw material.
Now redevelop the process to add in new items
receiving and storage
transfer and mixing
New question get asked…
• How do we monitor quality of raw materials?
• How do we monitor quality of product?
• Will operators have to trained how to handle materials? Can we develop better engineering controls to keep operators away from the
materials and reaction?
• What about waste products?
• Quality assurance ? How do we maintain the process to stay in control?
• Bullk storage
• Product processing and packaging
• Other questions?
Now redevelop the process again to add in new items.
QC of Raw
Raw Material 1
QC of Raw
Raw Material 2
Raw Material 3
QC of Raw
QC of Raw
• Normally used to look at defects of a process already in place.
• Outlines the overall process from start to finish
• Can be used to identify/predict problems or identify things to watch out for
in the development of a process/product.
• Can include more than just manufacturing. Can involve marketing, sales,
human resources, IT, etc…
Scale up of a process
Things to consider in Fishbone Diagram (as main headings or sub-headings):
• Start with the main components of the process flow diagram as Headings (boxes)
• Any questions at each step of the process should be captured as a sub-heading
• You can have sub-headings be the same for different main headings. Example – safety in the raw material storage
is different than safety in the reaction heading and can (should) be separate questions.
• For each process, consider things that might be required, things that contribute to safety, production, cost, yield,
• Chemicals – raw materials for reactions – liquids, solids, gases
• Materials/Equipment – reaction vessel(s), mixer(s), evapourator, distillation, forklift because of weight, etc.
• Is the equipment hazardous (blades, high voltage, high pressure, etc)
• Timeline for production – how long do these reactions take? How about set up? How long can the raw materials
or product be stored? What quantitites can be stored? If you don’t know the answers, at least ask the questions
in the fishbone diagram so they are documented.
• SDS and safety related data – look up chemical information. Helps determine storage equipment and safety
standards. If you cant find the actual SDS sheets, find similar chemicals or info online (Google: hazards of alkyl
halides, hazards of Grignard reagents, hazards of organic acids). Fire safety should be the minimum hazard.
• QA/QC – how do we maintain quality? Raw materials, intermediates, final product?
• Process optimization – statistical process control, control charts, DOE
• What can go wrong? With each “bone”, should have some potential problems that can occur
Fishbone Diagram – Cause and Effect
Scale up of a process
Scale up production of a
reaction A to B
• Millipore Sigma
• Huge supplier of organic (and biological/inorganic) chemicals. Use this as your main supplier.
• SDS information/Safety information
• Physical properties
• Inorganic and fine specialty chemicals, catalysts