Essay Needs To Be Redone CRIMINOLOGY
Running head: CRIMINOLOGY
Andre P. Exilien
Dr. Miron Gilbert
December 30, 2020
The use of body cameras has gained significant attention in the military police. The main aim is to provide a supplement account of the officers’ actions while patrolling the areas and citizens’ activities. Therefore, this is a rapidly gaining use to enhance accountability, transparency, and the relationship between law enforcement officers and the people. The police officers have several tasks required to carry out daily while maintaining high degrees of integrity. However, this pressure from their work has contributed to the officers’ vulnerability to act unlawfully in some instances. This has led to incidences, and police brutality reports in the communities,resulting in lower public trust and increased fear. Therefore, using body cameras has been mainly due to the criticism that the military police receive from the public’s members. However, to achieve far-reaching potentials, it is necessary to have substantial changes in the entire police department. Police accountability is the external and internal checks of balances used to enforce and ensure the officers carry out their duties within the law’s confines. Therefore, it is a system that is meant to provide the police to maintain integrity, and they shy away from misconduct. The use of body cameras is intended to achieve this function. Accountability requires that the complaints are launched and investigated using proper measures. The body cameras provide a new line of evidence accessible to the police department seniors, and hence the officers on patrol must act responsibly. The research aimed at identifying the need for body camera usage within the military police towards improving accountability in evidence and procedural applications during police interactions with the citizens. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Too long paragraph. Please revise into 2 paragraphs and add research for specific content.
Statement of the Problem
For many years, public members have been complaining about the lack of accountability regardingpolice officers’ actions. There have been several incidences of police brutality, police shootings, and intimidation of particular groups of people. The arrests made were also prone to errors leading to many innocent people being locked up in prisons. In most cases, the police officers at fault due to harassment or shootings were not prosecuted. This made the public have little or no confidence and trust in the police department. However, with time, the use of body cameras was seen as a positive action that would increase police officers’ accountability. These cameras can record the officers’ and the public’s activities and provide additional evidence that can be used in a court of law. Simultaneously, it helps the police department seniors regularly monitor their officers’ actions and make decisions on prosecution and officers’ termination based on their recorded activities. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Where is the research support? You are having as conversation here.
This research involved a review of previous research and publications. The main aim was to establish what the other scholars have found about using body cameras when the police officers are at work. To enhance the quality of the research, the articles used were limited to the last five years. This is because the use of body cameras is a new technology that is gaining momentum. Hence, it is only possible to get more information and technology’s impact from the last few years. The research several themes such as police accountability, benefits of using body cameras, challenges the police force face, and the public views and opinion of using these cameras. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Not needed. You need to do the literature review only.
The entire research was focused on the use of body cameras by the police force. The following were the research questions that were formulated and which the study tried to answer.
How does the use of body cameras enhance police accountability?
What is the extent to which the use of body cameras enhance citizen-police interactions?
Do police officers work better when under monitoring? Comment by Miron Gilbert: Not needed for this paper. Research questions are needed for graduate studies.
The use of body cameras has been applauded as the best technology to keep police officers in check. They provide transparency in evidence collection, recording incidences, and the actions taken by the police officers. However, this technology affects both the members of the public and the police officers. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Use a scholarly tone and add research.
Influence on the Encounters between Police Officers and the Civilians
The use of body cameras has been emphasized, with the proponents stating that this is the best way to enhance police-citizen encounters’ civility. This is because it is seen as a technology that enhances self-awareness and deterrence. According to Lum et al., the police officers on body cameras control their behaviors, and hence the incidences of undesirable actions are limited (2019). This is because the police officers do not want to be caught on camera doing unpleasant things. Using the deterrence theory, crime is prevented when the costs of committing it are seen to be higher compared to the benefits (Wallace et al., 2018). Therefore, police officers are prone to police brutality, especially when dealing with difficult citizens. However, with the use of body cameras, they are likely to be caught when doing these actions, which are perceived as illegal. The punishment for this can be either prosecution or termination. Since the cost is too high for the police officer, they are forced to carry out their duties as per the established procedures. As such, the body cameras have been seen as a useful tool to deter non-compliance with the set rules and bring proper behaviors during police-public encounters. According to Crow et al., deterrence is an effective mechanism that has been triggered by the use of body cameras because the officers do not want to risk apprehension and conviction from the massive evidence that is acquired (2017). Thus, the officers and the citizens understand that any misconduct will be captured on the camera and hence the knowledge of punishment makes them behave well.
According to the self-awareness theory, when people focus on themselves, they can evaluate their behaviors according to the provided standards and values. Adams and Mastracci stated that when human beings are under observation, they are likely to modify their actions and hence act in a manner that shows socially acceptable norms(2019). People are likely to adhere to the laws and regulations because they know that they will be negatively affected when they do not abide by these standards. The use of body cameras in the military police, especially when interacting with the public members, raises self-awareness. Hence, the officers and citizens are conscious of every action they take. The citizens know that there will be compelling evidence to prosecute them when they engage in illegal activities, whereas the police officers know their efforts are visible. This means that whenever the police officers discover that their actions are against the standards and procedures, they will alter them. Therefore, the body cameras act as a prevention mechanism that influences the officers’ behaviors under observation. As such, they have both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on the police officers. According to Bellin and Pemberton, body cameras’ implementation has seen improved civility when the police officers encounter the citizens(2018). This has led to a decline in the complaints against the officers and the excessive use of force by 50%. This shows that the continued monitoring of police activities has led to improved behaviors and better interactions. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Use a scholarly tone.
Impact of Body Cameras on Police Work Activities
Ariel et al. carried out research that was supposed to determine the impacts of using body cameras on police activities such as proactive problem solving, willingness to make arrests, and response to police calls (2016). From this research, it was discovered that the officers using body cameras are more likely to make arrests that lead to criminal prosecution than those who do not have them. This is because, with the cameras, the police officers have permanent evidence of what transpired. They thus can use this during their statement writing. The police officers on duty understand that they are supposed to maintain law and order. Without any form of monitoring, they are likely to carry out their activities without considering the law’s provisions. Therefore, body cameras’ placement has gained momentum because of the belief that the offenders, whether they are citizens or police officers, will be held accountable. Gaub et al. stated that body cameras increase law enforcement officers’ activities and their productivity when measured using the number of arrests (2016). Simultaneously, these arrests are more likely to lead to criminal charges because of the recorded evidence.
Braga et al. state that the use of body cameras has some benefits and disadvantages (2018). This is why it is essential for police departments to consider several issues, so that body cameras are in line with the established policies. First of all, the privacy of the police officers and community members must be considered. This is because although the officers are at work, their privacy must be respected. The constitution also provides for the citizens’ privacy, and hence any incidences that may compromise this should be discouraged. However, body cameras effectively enhance police accountability, reduce discrimination, enhance police behavior while in public, and resolve conflicts between the police officers and the citizens. It also enhances transparency and reduces the bias by the juries and the police departments. Comment by Miron Gilbert: You are talking here . Add more research.
The use of body cameras has also been shown to affect the working of the police. Without surveillance, there is an increased risk that the officers respond slowly to calls, carry out arrests unexpectedly, and their calls on duty are low. According to Bellinand Pemberton, the presence of body cameras enhances the efficiency and the performance of the officers (2018). It makes them respond quickly to the calls made by the citizens. This improves the security of the different neighborhoods and, as a result, makes the members of the public positively identify with the police force. The incidences of harassment and use of force with the presence of the body cameras are low. This is because the officers understand that at any given moment, they are being watched. The incidence of unwarranted searches and seizures especially when the police officers are dealing with people in their house are lower with body cameras. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Add more research . Comment by Miron Gilbert: Not needed here.
Law Enforcement Officers Accountability
The torture and the molestation of citizens in the hands of law enforcement officers in the United States led to the formation of the Task Force on policing (Bellin& Pemberton, 2018). The results showed that the trust between the police officers and the citizens is diminishing,which is an essential part of democracy. The members of the public expect fairness from the law enforcement agencies. The public members have vital interests in having quality standards on oversight and accountability of the police officers. This is because these are the people who are empowered to arrest and conduct searches on people’s properties. Therefore, the use of body cameras has brought accountability on the part of the police officers. The encounters between the police officers and the past citizens have been characterized by incidences of violence, illegal searches, and improper arrests. However, body cameras have led to an improvement in the way investigations are carried out. The ability to record these incidences brings about transparency and better clarity. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Use a scholarly tone and add research.
The officer’s behavior is essential during the process of conducting their duties. This is because actions such as excessive use of force and unjustified stops break the law. These are the same acts that make corruption and incidences of bribery to increase in the police department. The citizens have developed fear and are frightened that false statements can be made against them. They thus have to cooperate with the law enforcement officers and ensure they overcome the intimidation at hand. According to Bromberg, Charbonneau, and Smith, body cameras may deter the officers from misconduct, including the actions of violating the military police department(2020). Therefore, these cameras limit the unnecessary use of force. Simultaneously, these cameras have led to the disputes’ proper resolution, mostly the complaints launched against the police officers. There is video evidence of whatever transpires in an encounter with the law enforcement officers, and thus, false claims of citizen molestation decline. In the case of a police officer at fault, it is impossible to challenge the case because video or audio evidence is present. Therefore, this expedites the resolution of the problem. The videos present can also solve a problem when there are differing accounts on both parties. As a result, law enforcement agencies are more efficient in resource allocation and resolving citizens’ issues and complaints. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Too long paragraph. Please revise into 2 paragraphs and add research here.
The complaints against the police officers are faced with challenges because the only evidence present is the victims’ account. The result is that the police department has had to deal with various complaints with no resolution. The presence of video evidence changes the entire dynamics. When the police officers are at fault, it will be visible, and hence proper measures can be taken, including disciplinary action (Adams &Mastracci, 2019). At the same time, the community members know that the police officers are armed with body cameras. This means that the members of the public are less likely to file fake complaints against the officers. This is because even if they do so, they are less likely to succeed. Therefore, these body cameras are the best way of collecting evidence. This is the information transmitted to the headquarters; hence,there is less probability of tampering with the evidence. The video images effectively ensure that the government protects police officers from false accusations of abuse (Wallace et al., 2018). The primary reason more police officers are offering to put on body cameras is several complaints about their conduct. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Use a scholarly tone .
Privacy Issues in using Body Cameras
Protection of Individual Rights
The use of body cameras brings a significant impact on individual privacy rights. The crime victims are prone to traumatic situations, and in most instances, they need those things to remain private due to the cases’ sensitivity. Police officers respond to severalevents, some of which are private. The problem with cameras’ use is that they do not choose the events to record and those they should not. As a result, when the officers are at work, they are likely to transmit information back to their seniors that is private. Simultaneously, the videos taken by the cameras can be stored. Hence it is visible to more people. The most significant problem is that there are no laws and regulations that determine the duration for which the videos should be stored. According to Magaloni et al., the problem with usingbody cameras is that there is no legislation on several issues (2019). First of all, the constitution guarantees that the people should be granted their privacy. It is thus wrong for an officer to invade the privacy of an individual. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Use a scholarly tone and add research.
Privacy is a critical aspect of an individual’s life. People are free to meet in public places and discuss their issues. However, increased surveillance using body cameras is a threat to such freedom. This has brought conflict when it comes to constitutional rights issues and the importance of enhancing surveillance. The police officers are required to perform their duties diligently. However, with the rising problems of cases and complaints on infringement of privacy, questions on their effectiveness arise. This is why, even with enough evidence, the police may be unable to perform their duties. In the case of the United States v. Jones, the Supreme Court ruled that an individual’s privacy is essential, especially in public places (White, Todak&Gaub, 2017). This means that the technologies adopted, such as the body cameras, should not be a reason for a breach of privacy laws.
Tagging Technologies in Surveillance
According to Hedberg, Katz, and Choate, one of the significant concerns that the proponents of body cameras have is that this technology does not consider the public need for privacy(2017). This is mainly due to the tagging technologies where the different officers’ information floods the police department. These are images of other individuals that attack the department to identify the individuals in mass. The use of tagging technologies hurts the privacy and anonymity of the citizens. This is because technology can catalogue the location of every person and event. It also makes it possible to track an individual’s whereabouts over some time. This is the technology used by many departments and has grown to enhance their facial recognition database. However, these technologies have improved the evidence collection for the police officers. The videos and the cataloged information serve as evidence for use in the courts (Bromberg, Charbonneau & Smith, 2020). Simultaneously, body cameras are the easiest way for police officers to abide by the set policies.
In most cases, the officers are prone to apprehending the wrong person. This is a problem that has led to many innocent people remaining in jail before proving their innocence. However, with body cameras, the officers can receive images of the criminals and apprehend the right person. Every officer gets the same image, and therefore the probability of making mistakes is lowered. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Where is the research?
The most significant issue that has arisen in the past years is officer privacy with body cameras. Even though the police officers’ actions were the main reason for incorporating cameras, their privacy must be considered. It is comfortable for the officers to work when every minute they are being monitored. It is also difficult for them to develop professional relationships (Gaub et al., 2016). Themost significant problem is that when the cameras are turned off, and an incident occurs, the police officer must answer several questions, especially on why the camera was not activated. Partial recordings also raise issues about the accountability of the officers.
According to Magaloni et al., body cameras haveeffectively enhanced the police officers’ remain accountability (2019). This is primarily for the officers who are considered rogue, and several complaints have been filed against them. These officers voluntarily take the cameras to ensure they are not implicated for crimes they have not committed. When the officers are using body cameras, their seniors can access the videos; hence, misconduct declines.
The police cameras produce sufficient information and evidence that show the incidences of misconduct and law enforcement officers’ actions. This is an acceptable way of ensuring that accountability is observed through the proper resolution of complaints. These are also means of safeguarding the procedural requirements. According to Hedberg, Katz, and Choate, the police department experiences appropriate treatment and chain of custody regarding access to evidence(2017). The police officers should ensure that the evidence collected follows the proper chain of custody andevidence treatment. This occurs in terms of appropriate reviewing of evidence and ensuring that it is not tampered with. Taking the evidence in the form of videos makes it impossible for the evidence to be changed. This means that there will be successful arrests and prosecution.
The video footage taken by the body cameras does not have value unless it is authentic. This means that it must provide some form of accountability and aid in investigations with authenticity and confidence. Every image or video must be following the proprietary laws. According to Bellin and Pemberton, it is only possible to control the video footage, and the evidence collected when there are strict internal controls on the treatment of all stored videos(2018). The military police department must ensure they limit the access, review, and editing and delete all the information. To enhance the process’s authenticity even further, it is essential to carry out independent audits thatcomply with the rules. The decisions to store and review the evidence later should also be following the established laws. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Use a scholarly tone.
According to Wallace et al., the government is supposed to ensure that all the citizens are well protected (2018). This means that they have the responsibility of taking care of the public and the police officers. Therefore, the only time that the videos and the footage collected by the police officers should be made public is through the criminal justice system. This is due to the importance of accountability and transparency in adopting body cameras. However, even after the evidence has been used and served the intended purpose, it is unclear how it should be disposed of. The main concern is that there is a rise in incidences, such as cybercrime. Access to the police database is possible, and this can expose private information about the citizens, which makes some people paranoid about its benefits. Comment by Miron Gilbert: You are talking here.
According to Crow et al., the main reason the citizens are still advocating for the use of body cameras by the police officers is that they know that they will enhance transparency (2017). The majority of cases on shootings and the killings of innocent people have been concealed. This is because the police officers are responsible for making statements when they report back to the events. Therefore, in most cases, the officers make statements that favor them. Justice for the victims is denied because there is no other person to give an account. However, with the body cameras, it is possible to have the right information and hence be able to demonstrate the actions of the officers, especially those who are unfair. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Add research in this section. Use a scholarly tone.
Braga et al. stated that to enhance the police force’s transparency, it is essential to ensure that community members are allowed to film the police officers at work (2018). This provides several perspectives on the same incidence to help in enhancing transparency. This is most especially because no federal laws are preventing the civilians from doing so. In most cases, the accounts presented by the public members have played a role in contradicting the police officers’ statements. Therefore, even as the body cameras are used to enhance transparency and accountability, public members play an essential role in ensuring law enforcement’s success. The evidence acquired cannot be changed when the police and the members of the public have access to the occurrences of an event. Therefore, the officers are forced to take the right information and keep correct records making evidence collection effective and efficient. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Use a scholarly tone and add more research. You are using the wrong APA format.
In conclusion, the use of body cameras in the police department has effectively enhanced accountability and collected evidence. As opposed to the past, when the officers had to give their account of the scene in writing without proof, it is possible to back up this information and make successful prosecution of the criminals. However, this has also served as an effective way of ensuring that the police officers carry out their duties diligently. With constant monitoring, they cannot use unprocedural methods in acquiring evidence, use excessive force, or engage in shootings of the citizens. Therefore, there is proper job performance and productivity to ensure the superiors have an excellent record of the officer. However, using these body cameras comes with several challenges where the officers’ privacy and public members can be compromised. Simultaneously, the officers who remain adamant in following the established regulations are likely to lose their jobs or face prosecution. This is especially when the definition of excessive force is not given, and during their work, they engage with the citizens in a manner that can be deemed unfit. Therefore, the body cameras have come to enhance the police department’s performance and ensure the public’s members have the right access to justice during searches, arrests, and any dealings with the police. The United States has reported several incidences of killings of innocent people from the police officers and this is the reason the body cameras have become an important component. Comment by Miron Gilbert: Where is the research? You are writing how you talk. Use a scholarly tone here.
Adams, I., &Mastracci, S. (2019). Police body-worn cameras: Effects on officers’ burnout and perceived organizational support. Police Quarterly, 22(1), 5-30.
Ariel, B., Sutherland, A., Henstock, D., Young, J., Drover, P., Sykes, J., …& Henderson, R. (2016). Wearing body cameras increases assaults against officers and does not reduce police use of force: Results from a global multi-site experiment. European journal of criminology, 13(6), 744-755.
Bellin, J., & Pemberton, S. (2018). Policing the admissibility of body camera evidence. Fordham L. Rev., 87, 1425.
Braga, A. A., Sousa, W. H., Coldren, J. R., & Rodriguez, D. (2018).The effects of body-worn cameras on police activity and police-citizen encounters. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-), 108(3), 511-538.
Bromberg, D. E., Charbonneau, É.,& Smith, A. (2020). Public support for facial recognition via police body-worn cameras: Findings from a list experiment. Government Information Quarterly, 37(1), 101415.
Crow, M. S., Snyder, J. A., Crichlow, V. J., &Smykla, J. O. (2017). Community perceptions of police body-worn cameras: The impact of views on fairness, fear, performance, and privacy. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 44(4), 589-610.
Gaub, J. E., Choate, D. E., Todak, N., Katz, C. M., & White, M. D. (2016). Officer perceptions of body-worn cameras before and after deployment: A study of three departments. Police Quarterly, 19(3), 275-302.
Hedberg, E. C., Katz, C. M., & Choate, D. E. (2017). Body-worn cameras and citizen interactions with police officers: Estimating plausible effects given varying compliance levels. Justice Quarterly, 34(4), 627-651.
Lum, C., Stoltz, M., Koper, C. S., & Scherer, J. A. (2019). Research on body‐worn cameras: What we know, what we need to know. Criminology & public policy, 18(1), 93-118.
Magaloni, B., Melo, V., Robles, G., &Empinotti, G. (2019). How body-worn cameras affect the use of gunshots, stop-and searches and other forms of police behavior: A Randomized Control Trial in Rio de Janeiro.
Wallace, D., White, M. D., Gaub, J. E., &Todak, N. (2018). Body‐worn cameras as a potential source of de-policing: Testing for camera‐induced passivity. Criminology, 56(3), 481-509.
White, M. D., Todak, N., &Gaub, J. E. (2017).Assessing citizen perceptions of body-worn cameras after encounters with police. Policing: an international journal of police strategies & management.
|Quality of Response||No Response||Poor/Unsatisfactory||Satisfactory||Good||Excellent|
|Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points)||Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.||20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking.||30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking.35||40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete 42*.||50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing.|
|Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points).||Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper.||5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper.||10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 12||15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources.||20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment.|
|Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points)||Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.||5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors||10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 13||15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage.||20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free.|
|Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points)||Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.||3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever.||5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. The can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform with size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 6||7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 8||10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.|
Each student is required to complete the term project, which is a 15-20 page (not counting the cover, abstract and reference page) research paper in APA format. Once you have submitted this assignment it is automatically run through Turnitin.com (plagiarism checker). You MUST be below a 20% match to other sources.
70. Thanks for the completing the assignment. Writing a thesis can be difficult. This is only the rough draft but more work was needed. I know you are doing your best. The paper needed subheadings. I observe too long paragraphs in the paper which needed revisions. Some sections were not needed for an undergraduate thesis. You are using the wrong format for in text citations.The paper needed more organization by the student. Use a scholarly tone. I observed issues with APA formatting. Work on using a scholarly tone not a conversation. You are talking not examining the subject matter. I need to observe how the research corresponds to the pros and cons of the thesis. Please review the APA manual for insight. Limited research was in some sections of the paper. You were talking in the paper. I’m concerned about this paper. Your writing and research skills must meet the thesis requirements
What is scholarly voice in writing?
Scholarly voice is the formal language which is used to write in forums, assignments, and essays. Although formality changes depending on the subject matter, most professionals in academia agree that second-person pronouns, slang, contractions, rhetorical questions, and hyperbole should be avoided.
What to avoid and examples to improve:
2nd Person Pronouns:
Avoid the use of you (singular and plural), and your(s) in formal writing. Only use I, we, our(s) if asked to write an opinion.
Example: To determine the threat a potential terrorist organization poses, you must first understand its ideology.
Better: Understanding a terrorist organization’s ideology helps determine the threat it poses to a nation-state.
Slang is a form of informal speech and should not be incorporated into formal writing.
Example: The threat does not have the upper hand in recruitment.
Better: The threat does not have the advantage in recruitment.
Contractions are formed when words or phrases are shortened by using an apostrophe to take the place of the missing letters or words.
Example: That’s a dangerous assumption.
Better: That is a dangerous assumption.
Rhetorical questions are those in which the response is usually obvious to the reader; however, an answer is not expected. Rhetorical questions are asked for effect.
Example: If we (U.S.) do not counter the threat and advancements of ISIS, who will?
Better: The United States must continue to lead the efforts in countering the threat and advancements of ISIS.
Hyperbole is an exaggerated statement, not meant to be taken literally.
Example: We are not at war with nations; we are at war with minds!
Better: Avoid all hyperbole in academic writing.