History O Brave New World Questions

1. Describe the histories of several pre-Columbian civilizations that had appeared and
disappeared before the arrival of the Spanish. What can we learn from their rise and fall?
Are there any cautionary tales for our own civilization?
2. Who were some of the great explorers who were active outside of Europe prior to the
Age of Exploration? Why is it that these civilizations did not colonize North or South
3. Explain the dimensions of the Columbian Exchange. How was the entire global
community impacted by the different components of this exchange?
4. Identify major figures and emerging nation-states that arose during and because of the
Age of Discovery. How did these explorers/nations interact differently with various
native groups?
5. Understand the differences between the various colonies established throughout North
America. How might the motivations of the colonizers and initial settlement have
influenced life in the region into the present day?
El Dorado – In the 16th and 17th centuries, Europeans believed that somewhere in the New
World there was a place of immense wealth known as El Dorado. The origins of El Dorado lie
deep in South America. And like all enduring legends, the tale of El Dorado contains some
scraps of truth. When Spanish explorers reached South America in the early 16th century, they
heard stories about a tribe of natives high in the Andes mountains in what is now Colombia.
When a new chieftain rose to power, his rule began with a ceremony at Lake Guatavita.
Accounts of the ceremony vary, but they consistently say the new ruler was covered with gold
dust, and that gold and precious jewels were thrown into the lake to appease a god that lived
underwater. The Spaniards started calling this golden Chief El Dorado, ‘the gilded one.’ The
ceremony of the gilded man supposedly ended in the late 15th century when El Dorado and his
subjects were conquered by another tribe. But the Spaniards and other Europeans had found so
much gold among the natives along the continent’s northern coast that they believed there had to
be a place of great wealth somewhere in the interior.
Where is El Dorado? In his 1849 poem “El Dorado,” writer Edgar Allan Poe offers an eerie and
eloquent suggestion: “Over the Mountains of the Moon, down the Valley of the Shadow, ride,
boldly ride … if you seek for El Dorado.”
Utopia – First published in 1516, during a period of astonishing political and technological
change, Sir Thomas More’s (1478 – 1535) Utopia depicts an imaginary society free of private
property, sexual discrimination, violence, and religious intolerance.
More’s book imagines a complex, self-contained community set on an island, in which people
share a common culture and way of life. He coined the word ‘utopia’ from the Greek ou-topos
meaning ‘no place’ or ‘nowhere.’ It was a pun – the almost identical Greek word eu-topos means
‘a good place.’ At the very heart of the word is a vital question: “Can a perfect world ever be
realized?” It is unclear as to whether the book is a serious projection of a better way of life, or a
satire that gave More a platform from which to discuss the chaos of European politics and the
challenges and opportunities put forth by colonizing new continents.
State of Nature – In moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and
international law, is the hypothetical life of people before societies came into existence.
Philosophers of the state of nature theory deduce that there must have been a time before
organized societies existed, and this presumption thus raises questions such as:

What was life like for humans before civil society?
How did government first emerge from such a starting position?
What are the hypothetical reasons for entering a state of society by establishing a
In some versions of social contract theory, there are no rights in the state of nature, only
freedoms, and it is the contract that creates rights and obligations. In other versions the opposite
occurs: the contract imposes restrictions upon individuals that curtail their natural rights.
Social Contract Theory – Is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment
and usually concerns the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social
contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to
surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority (of the ruler, or to the decision of a
majority) in exchange for protection of their remaining rights or maintenance of the social order.
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil –
Is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651. Its name derives from
the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government and
is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory.
Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and
rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of
nature, “the war of all against all can be avoided by a strong, undivided government.”
On the Social Contract or Principles of Political Rights – Is a book written by Jean-Jacques
Rousseau (1712 – 1778) and published in 1762. The stated aim of The Social Contract is to
determine whether there can be a legitimate political authority, since people’s interactions he saw
at his time seemed to put them in a state far worse than the good one they were at in the state of
nature, even though living in isolation. He concludes, “Let us then admit that force does not
create right, and that we are obliged to obey only legitimate powers.”
Rousseau posits that the political aspects of a society should be divided into two parts. First,
there must be a sovereign consisting of the whole population, women included, that represents
the general will and is the legislative power within the state. The second division is that of the
government, being distinct from the sovereign. This division is necessary because the sovereign
cannot deal with particular matters like applications of the law. Doing so would undermine its
generality, and therefore damage its legitimacy. Thus, the government must remain a separate
institution from the sovereign body. When government exceeds the boundaries set in place by
the people, it is the mission of the people to abolish such government and begin anew.
Indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their
descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally huntergatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced
aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a
testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the
Americas. Some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming,
hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture,
large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Many also
maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social
organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many
indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern
needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few
are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Puebloans – are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common
agricultural, material and religious practices. When Spaniards entered the area beginning in the
16th century, they came across complex, multi-story villages built of adobe, stone and other local
materials, which they called pueblos, or towns, a term that later came to refer also to the peoples
who live in these villages.
Hopi – is a shortened form of their autonym, Hopituh Shi-nu-mu (“The Peaceful People” or
“Peaceful Little Ones”). The Hopi Dictionary gives the primary meaning of the word ‘Hopi’ as:
“behaving one, one who is mannered, civilized, peaceable, polite, who adheres to the Hopi way.”
In the past, Hopi sometimes used the term “Hopi” and its cognates to refer to the Pueblo peoples
in general, in contrast to other, more warlike tribes.
In contemporary times, the people and their archaeological culture were referred to as Anasazi
for historical purposes. The Navajo, who were not their descendants, called them by this term.
Reflecting historic traditions, the term was used to mean “ancient enemies.” Contemporary
Puebloans do not want this term to be used. Most Hopi accounts of creation center around Tawa
(the sun spirit). Tawa is the creator, and it was he who formed the ‘First World’ out of Tokpella,
or endless space, as well as its original inhabitants.
Mississippian culture – was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date
from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE. It was composed of a series of urban settlements and
satellite villages (suburbs) linked together by a loose trading network, the largest city being
Cahokia, believed to be a major religious center. The civilization flourished from the southern
shores of the Great Lakes at Western New York and Western Pennsylvania in what is now the
Eastern Midwest, extending south-southwest into the lower Mississippi Valley and wrapping
easterly around the southern foot of the Appalachians barrier range into what is now the
Southeastern United States.
Cahokia – is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (c. 1050 – 1350 AD) directly
across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis. Cahokia was the largest and most influential
urban settlement of the Mississippian culture, which developed advanced societies across much
of what is now the central and southeastern United States, beginning more than 1,000 years
before European contact. Today, Cahokia Mounds are considered the largest and most complex
archaeological site north of the great pre-Columbian cities in Mexico.
Iroquois Confederacy – Also known as “The Five Nations.” Was an alliance of five, later six,
American Indian tribes: the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora.
Hiawatha (c. 1100/1400) – Was a pre-colonial Native American leader and co-founder of the
Iroquois Confederacy. He was a disciple of the Great Peacemaker (Deganawida), a Huron
prophet and spiritual leader who proposed the unification of the Iroquois peoples, who shared
common ancestry and similar languages.
Great Peacemaker (c. 1100/1400) – A holy man who had a compelling spiritual presence, but
was impeded in evangelizing his prophecy by his foreign affiliation and a severe speech
impediment. Hiawatha, a skilled and charismatic orator, was instrumental in persuading the
Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas and Mohawks to accept the Great Peacemaker’s vision
and band together to become the Five Nations of the Iroquois confederacy.
Erik the Red (950 – 1003 AD) – Founded the first Norse settlement in Greenland. According to
the sagas, his father was exiled from Norway in 960 AD as a result of ‘a number of killings,’ and
Erik’s entire family settled on Iceland. In Erik the Red 982 was sentenced to exile from Iceland
for three years for murder, and from there established a settlement in Greenland, where his son
Leif was born. Even though popular history credits Erik as the first person to discover
Greenland, the Icelandic sagas suggest that earlier Norsemen discovered and tried to settle it
before him.
Leif Erikson (970 – 1020 AD) – Established a Norse settlement in present day Newfoundland.
Regarded as the first European to land in North America. According to the Sagas of Icelanders,
he established a Norse settlement at Vinland, tentatively identified with the Norse L’Anse aux
Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland in modern-day Canada. Later archaeological
evidence suggests that Vinland may have been the areas around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and
that the L’Anse aux Meadows site was a ship repair station.
Vinland Settlement – The name of the Viking colony in Newfoundland. In 1960 archaeological
evidence of the only known Norse settlement in North America (outside Greenland) was found at
L’Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of the island of Newfoundland. This proved
conclusively the Vikings’ pre-Columbian discovery of North America. Recent archaeological
studies suggest that this site is not the Vinland of the Norse accounts in its entirety but was the
entrance to a larger region called Vinland by the Norse.
Skraelings – Norse word for “primitive one.” Name the Norse gave for the native Inuit tribes in
Greenland, and the native tribes of Eastern Canada.
Ibn Battuta (1304 – 1369) – was a Muslim Moroccan scholar and explorer who widely travelled
the medieval world. Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of the Islamic world
and many non-Muslim lands, including North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa, the
Middle East, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and China. Near the end of his life, he
dictated an account of his journeys, titled A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of
Cities and the Marvels of Travelling.
Mali (Mande) Empire – an empire in West Africa from 1230-1600 CE. The empire was
founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa
Musa (1280 – 1337). It was the largest in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of
the region through the spread of its language, laws and customs along lands adjacent to the Niger
River, as well as other areas consisting of vassal kingdoms and provinces. Historians consider
Mansa Musa to have been the richest man in all history.
Muslim traders held a monopoly on trade with India and China. In order to receive Asian goods,
European traders sought a direct route with Asia.
Henry the Navigator (1394 – 1460) – Was the first major patron of explorers. In 1418, Prince
Henry started the first school for oceanic navigation along with an astronomical observatory at
Sagres, Portugal. In this school, people were trained in navigation, map-making, and science, in
order to sail down the west coast of Africa. He commissioned sailors to find:
1. A path to the Indian Ocean to get Portugal involved in the “spice trade.”
2. Find the Kingdom of Prester John, a mythical Christian king who was believed to be
living somewhere in Africa.
Escola de Sagres – was a group of scientific Portuguese personalities and techniques related to
ocean navigation of the fifteenth century, formed around Henry the Navigators in Sagres near
Cape St. Vincent, the southwestern end of the Iberian Peninsula.
Vasco de Gama (1460 – 1524) – A student at Henry the Navigator’s school at Sarges. The first
European to reach India by sea, in 1497. Sailed around the horn of Africa, also known as the
Cape of Good Hope.
The Columbian Exchange – was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human
populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th
centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus’s 1492
voyage. Invasive species, including communicable diseases, were a byproduct of the Exchange.
The changes in agriculture significantly altered and changed global populations. The most
significant immediate impact of the Columbian exchange was the cultural exchanges and the
transfer of people between continents.
The new contact between the global population circulated a wide variety of crops and livestock,
which supported increases in population in both hemispheres, although diseases initially caused
precipitous declines in the numbers of indigenous peoples of the Americas. Traders returned to
Europe with maize, potatoes, and tomatoes, which became very important crops in Europe by the
18th century. The term was first used in 1972 by American historian Alfred W. Crosby (1931 –
2018), in his environmental history book The Columbian Exchange.
Spanish Reconquista (718 – 1492) – A period of 774 years between the Islamic conquest of
Spain beginning following the Battle of Covadonga in 718, and ending with the fall of Granada,
the last Islamic stronghold Western Europe.
Isabelle of Castile (1451 – 1504) and Ferdinand of Aragon (1452 – 1516) – Their marriage
united the two warring kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. After conquering the Muslim state of
Granada, Isabelle and Ferdinand successfully united the Iberian peninsula for the first time.
Served as the patron to Christopher Columbus’ expedition to the New World.
Taino Peoples – Were a major indigenous people in the Caribbean, inhabited present day Cuba,
Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Bahamas. The Taíno became nearly extinct as a
culture following settlement by Spanish colonists, primarily due to infectious diseases for which
they had no immunity. The first recorded smallpox outbreak in Hispaniola was in either
December 1518 or January 1519. This smallpox epidemic killed almost 90% of the Native
Americans who had not already perished. Warfare and harsh enslavement by the colonists also
caused many deaths. By 1548, the Taíno population had declined to fewer than 500.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) – Spain and Portugal sign a treaty dividing the newly discovered
lands between the two nations. Spain was given exclusive rights to all newly discovered and
undiscovered lands in the region west of the line. Portuguese expeditions were to keep to the east
of the line. Neither power was to occupy any territory already in the hands of a Christian ruler.
Aztec Empire (1427 – 1521) – A Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the
post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec peoples included different ethnic groups of
central Mexico. Aztec culture was organized into city-states (altepetl), some of which joined to
form alliances, political confederations, or empires. The Aztec empire was a confederation of
three city-states established in 1427.
Hernan Cortes (1485 – 1547) – A Spanish conquistador who led the expedition that brought
about the fall of the Aztec Empire, bringing large portions of Mexico under the Empire of Spain.
Montezuma II (1466 – 1520) – Emperor of the Aztecs from 1502 – 1520. Ruled the Aztecs at
the empire’s height and immediate decline. The portrayal of Montezuma in history has mostly
been colored by his role as ruler of a defeated nation, and many sources describe him as weakwilled and indecisive. The biases of some historical sources make it difficult to understand his
actions during the Spanish invasion.
Inca Empire (1463 – 1532) – At its height the Inca Empire covered over 300,000 square miles,
ranging 2,400 miles from north to south. The empire had an extensive network of roads that
connected a diverse population of 12,000,000 inhabitants. Destroyed in 1532 after a band of
conquistadors under the command of Francisco Pizarro (1471 – 1541) captured and later killed
the Sapa Inca (Emperor) Atahualpa (1502 – 1533) after the Inca paid a ransom that demanded
a room full of gold.
Massacre of Cajamarca (November 16, 1532) – The ambush and capture of the Inca ruler
Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro and a small Spanish force on November 16, 1532. The Spanish
killed thousands of Atahualpa’s counselors, commanders and unarmed attendants in the great
plaza of Cajamarca, and caused his armed host outside the town to flee. The seizure of Atahualpa
marked the opening stage of the conquest of the pre-Columbian Inca civilization of Peru.
Juan Ponce De Leon (1474 – 1521) – Served on Christopher Columbus’ second voyage to
Hispaniola. In 1509 became the Crown Governor of Puerto Rico. Led the first expedition to
Florida in 1513. Established the first Spanish colony near Key West in 1521, killed by natives
shortly after.
Calusa Kingdom – Known as “the Fierce People,” under the leadership of King Cacique
Carlos, successfully expelled the Spanish from Florida. After de Leon’s death, several more illfated attempts would be made to colonize Florida, before St. Augustine, the first permanent
Spanish settlement in Florida, was founded in 1565.
Fort Caroline – French settlement located near present-day Jacksonville. Established in 1564 by
René Goulaine de Laudonnière as a haven for Huguenot Protestant refugees, escaping religious
St. Augustine – The oldest continuously inhabited settlement in North America. Founded in
1565 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, the colony was used as a launching point against
encroaching French settlement.
Massacre at Matanzas Inlet – On September 28, 1565 Menéndez de Avilés set out to attack
Fort Caroline, traveling overland from St. Augustine. At the same time, the French sailed from
Fort Caroline, intending to attack St. Augustine from the sea. The Spanish overwhelmed the
lightly defended Fort Caroline, sparing only the women and children, although some 25 men
were able to escape. The French fleet was driven off course by a storm, many wrecking on the
coast south of St. Augustine. When the Spanish found the main group of the French shipwreck
survivors, Menéndez de Avilés ordered all of the Huguenots executed.
Roanoke Colony – A British colony chartered off the coast of present-day North Carolina by
Queen Elizabeth I in 1585, under the leadership of John White. White was unable to return to
the colony for three years, and when he did, found the site to be completely abandoned. The only
words left behind were “Croatan” the name of a Native American tribe local to the North
Carolina coast.
Jamestown – Founded in 1607, and chartered by King James II, was the first permanent
English settlement in the Americas. The site for Jamestown was picked for several reasons, all of
which met criteria the Virginia Company. The site was surrounded by water on three sides (it
was not fully an island yet) and was far inland; both meant it was easily defensible against
possible Spanish attacks. As they endured through the Starving Time, a period during the winter
of 1609 – 1610 in which all but 50 of the 500 original colonists died from disease, starvation, and
poor conditions.
John Smith –Trained the Jamestown colonists on how to farm, work, and set up their colony. He
publicly stated, “he who shall not work, shall not eat”. This strength of character and
determination overcame problems presented from the hostile native Americans, the wilderness
and the troublesome and uncooperative English settlers.
Powhatan Confederacy – A powerful collection of Native American tribes located along the
James River in Eastern Virginia. Chief Powhatan (a.k.a. Wahunsenacawh) (d. 1618) had a
tense, but economically productive relationship with the English Colonists. Pocahontas (c. 1596
– 1617), Powatan’s 11-year-old daughter allegedly convinced him not to attack the settlers.
Peace between the Powhatan Indians and the English brought about by the conversion and
marriage of Pocahontas (kidnapped by the English in 1613) and John Rolfe in 1614. It ended in
1622 when Jamestown escaped being attacked, due to a warning from a Powhatan boy living
with the English. During the attack 350-400 of the 1,200 settlers were killed. After the attack, the
Powhatan Indians withdrew, as was their way, and waited for the English to learn their lesson or
pack up and leave. Once the English regrouped they retaliated and there was fighting between
the two peoples for ten years, until a tenuous peace was reached in 1632.
Plymouth – A colony established by William Bradford (1590 – 1657) along present-day
Massachusetts Bay. Rather than being entrepreneurs like many of the settlers of Jamestown, a
significant proportion of the citizens of Plymouth were fleeing religious persecution and
searching for a place to worship as they saw fit. The social and legal systems of the colony
became closely tied to their religious beliefs, as well as English custom.
Pilgrim – Group of separatists that were excommunicated from the Church of England. They
held that their differences with the Church of England were irreconcilable and that their worship
should be organized independently of the trappings, traditions and organization of a central
church. Over half the original colonists at Plymouth were members of this group.
Mayflower Compact – Was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. The document
was written by William Bradford, and signed by the separatists. It bound the colonists to live in a
civil society according to their own laws. It remained the fundamental law of their colony of
Plymouth until the colony was absorbed into Massachusetts. Although no women signed the
document, they were expected to uphold the laws put forth.
Wampanoag – Native American tribe indigenous to Massachusetts Bay, tribal leaders Squanto
(1585 – 1622) and Samoset (1590 – 1653) – helped the Plymouth colonists survive the difficult
winter by teaching them how to plant squash, pumpkins, and corn.
Massasoit Sachem (Ousamequin) (1581 – 1661) – was the sachem or leader of the Wampanoag
confederacy. Massasoit means Great Sachem. Massasoit’s people had been seriously weakened
by a series of epidemics and were vulnerable to attacks by the Narragansetts, and he formed an
alliance with the colonists at Plymouth Colony for defense against them. It was through his
assistance that the Plymouth Colony avoided starvation during the early years.
New France – The area colonized by France in present day Canada during a period beginning
with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the
cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763.
New Sweden – was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of Delaware River in North
America from 1638 to 1655 in the present-day American Mid-Atlantic states of Delaware, New
Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Conquered by the Dutch in 1655, during the Second Northern War,
and incorporated into New Netherland. With Fort Christina as the first Swedish settlement in
New Sweden, and the capital.
Peter Gunnarson Rambo – was a Swedish immigrant to New Sweden who lived as a farmer
and served as a justice of the Governor’s Council. He was the longest living of the original
settlers and became known as the Father of New Sweden. Known for organizing the first revolt
against unfair leadership within a North American colony.
New Netherland – A Dutch colony of the early between the years 1614 – 1664, centered on the
Hudson valley. Captured by the English in 1664, it was divided into New York and New Jersey.
New Amsterdam – Served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland territory. It
was renamed New York in 1665 in honor of the then Duke of York (later James II of England)
after English forces seized control of Manhattan Island, along with the rest of the Dutch colony.
Operated by the Dutch West India Company, a charted company of merchants with a territory
that spanned from West Africa to North America.
Peter Stuyvesant (1612 – 1672) – The Director-General of the New Netherland Colony, and
Governor of New Amsterdam. Refused to surrender the colony, but after the English threatened
military action, the colonists forced him to surrender.
Massachusetts Bay Colony – Settlement situated around the present day cities of Salem and
Boston. The territory administered by the colony included much of present-day central New
England, including portions of the U.S. states of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode
Island, and Connecticut. Territory claimed but never administered by the colonial government
extended as far west as the Pacific Ocean.
John Winthrop (1587 – 1649) – A Puritan lawyer who was instrumental in the founding of the
Massachusetts Bay Colony. Founded Boston with the intention of creating a “city upon a hill.”

The Massachusetts Bay Company and the colony were one and the same until 1684,
when the charter was taken away. Later, in 1691, a new royal charter was granted to
Massachusetts; the Plymouth Colony and Maine were absorbed.
Antinomian Controversy – Was a religious and political controversy in the Massachusetts Bay
Colony from 1636 – 1638. The term “antinomian” literally means “one who is against the law.”
The Puritan founders began to expel colonists who did not exactly follow the Puritan religious
Anne Hutchinson (1591 – 1643) – A major figure in the Antinomian Controversy, tried as a
witch, and banished from the colony along with her many supporters. Practiced a “covenant of
grace,” which promised eternal life for all people who have faith in Christ. Hutchinson is a key
figure in the development of religious freedom in England’s American colonies and the history of
women in ministry. She challenged the authority of the ministers, exposing the subordination of
women in the culture of colonial Massachusetts.
Puritanism – The Puritans of Massachusetts Bay were Calvinists, but with their own points of
emphasis. They held the traditional belief that all mankind merited eternal damnation, but a
merciful God had graciously granted salvation to a few, the Elect. However, they believed that
salvation came at a price — God’s chosen people were bound by a covenant (contract) to see to
the enforcement of God’s laws in society.
Salem Witch Trials – Were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of
witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. The trials resulted
in the executions of twenty people, most of them women.
King Phillip (Metacomet)’s War – Was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between indigenous
inhabitants of New England and New England colonists and their indigenous allies. The war is
named for Metacomet, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the name Philip because of the
friendly relations between his father Massasoit and the Mayflower Pilgrims.
O, wonder!
How many goodly creatures are there here!
How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world,
That has such people in’t!”
– Miranda
– The Tempest, Act V, Scene I
Thomas Hobbes
Jean Jacques
 The dates for when they lived are widely
speculated. The latest research argues
that the unification of the Iroquois took
place during the Solar Eclipse of 1142.
 The Peacemaker (Deganawida) traveled
across the Great Lakes to end the 100
Year “Time of Trouble.”
 Hiawatha converted to the Peacemaker’s
teachings, persuaded his enemy Tadodaho
to preside over the “keepers of the council
 The Five Nations became the first example
of a functioning democracy in North
Henry the Navigator
Vasco De Gamma
CIRCA 1500
Hernan Cortes
Montezuma II
Spanish Version
Aztec Version
CIRCA 1500
Francisco Pizarro
Fort Caroline
St. Augustine
Chief Powhatan (Wahunsenacawh)
 Puritan lawyer who founded the
Massachusetts Bay Colony and the
city of Boston in 1630.
 His settlement is considered to be
the first wave in the Great
 Wrote extensively on the early
history of the colony, many of his
sources are still used today.
Anne Hutchinson vs. John Winthrop
 Fifteen feet high, this pillory and post—from
seventeenth-century England and in the
Colonial Williamsburg collections—held the
offender by the neck and hands.
 The pillory was employed for treason, sedition,
arson, blasphemy, witchcraft, perjury, wife
beating, cheating, forgery, coin clipping, dice
cogging, slandering, conjuring, fortune-telling,
and drunkenness, among other offenses.
 One man was set in the pillory for delivering
false dinner invitations; another for being the
author of a rough practical joke; another for
selling a harmful quack medicine. All sharpers,
beggars, vagabonds, and shiftless persons
were in danger of being pilloried.
 On several occasions, onlookers pelted the
pilloried prisoner so enthusiastically with heavy
missiles that death resulted.

May 1642 – Thomas Granger of Plymouth (17) was indicted in 1642 for buggery “with a mare, a cow,
two goats, five sheep, two calves and a turkey.” Granger was hanged; the animals, for their part in the
affair, were executed.

July 1636 – Boston’s Roger Scott was picked up for “repeated sleeping on the Lord’s Day” and
sentenced to be severely whipped for “striking the person who waked him from his godless slumber.”

Jan. 1658 – Abiel Wood of Plymouth was hauled before the court for “irreverently behaving himself by
chalking the back of one Hezekiah Purrington, Jr., with Chalk, playing and recreating himself in the
time of publick worship.”

Sept. 1662 – Edward Preston was sentenced to be publicly whipped at Barnstable “for his lewd
practices tending to sodomy with Edward Mitchell and pressing John Keene thereunto (if he would
have yielded).” No death penalty here, since the actions of Preston and Mitchell only “tended toward

Feb. 1682 – In Maine it cost Andrew Searle five shillings merely for “wandering from place to place”
instead of “frequenting the publique worship of god.”

Aug. 1683 – Captain Kemble made the mistake of publicly kissing his wife on returning home on a
Sunday after three years at sea, a transgression that earned him several hours of public humiliation in
the stocks.

Feb. 1692 – For committing adultery Jenna Goneere was “nayled by both eares to the pillory 3 nailes
in each eare and the nailes to be slitt out and whipped 20 good lashes.”

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