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Abstract: An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the paper, including your conclusion and recommendation. Review the resource section of this module for additional information on how to write an abstract.
Introduction: A brief overview of what you are researching, why, and an overview of your research process (including the main topics you will review). This should be approximately one paragraph. Include any previous recommendations or comments from your instructor.
Background: Describe what led to the problem, explain the extent of the problem, and why it is necessary to research and resolve the problem. This should be 2-3 paragraphs. Include any previous recommendations or comments from your instructor.
Literature Review: Provide historical background on the area you are researching, provide a contemporary context in which your research is situated, identify any trends in the literature related to your problem, identifies gaps in the literature, draw conclusions based on the literature (what we know about the problem). This should be 2-3 pages. Include any previous recommendations or comments from your instructor.
Data Analysis and Results: Through the analysis of data, state your findings. This should be approximately one page. Include any previous recommendations or comments from your instructor.
Conclusions: Based on the results of your data, interpret what they mean in the context of your problem and from an industry perspective. This should be 2-3 paragraphs. Include any previous recommendations or comments from your instructor.
Recommendation: Based on the results and conclusions, state your recommendation to address the problem. This should be 2-3 paragraphs. Include any previous recommendations or comments from your instructor.
ResourcesIntroductionThere has been dramatic popularity in the unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in the U.S. UAS varying in sizes, features, and shapes have flown in different applications and unprecedented numbers. Like in other technological advancements, whereby there are daily client interactions, the use of UAS, also known as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or drones has expanded in modern days (Hatfield et al., 2020). The paper will look at the implementation of drones into the United States national airspace system, the actual work it will take, and the timeframes estimated at how the process will be implemented.BackgroundThe Unmanned Aerial Systems have been implemented in the National Airspace System. According to FAA (Federal Aviation Administration), more than two and a half million drones are flying in the United States, a number that is expected to rise in the years to come (Yaacoub et al., 2020). Although drones have been present over the century, integrating them in the NAS civilian purpose is unestablished since the drone flights are still unique to be adopted in the current general aviation system. The Review of the LiteratureDrones are not yet integrated into NAS since they are not accepted due to their collision with aircraft. NAS is a highly complex and integrated network that offers reliable and safe flights in the whole U.S. (Yaacoub et al., 2020). In 2012, 200,000h domestic drone operations were approximated, a figure that was anticipated to be more than one million h by 2020. (Yaacoub et al., 2020). In 2016, the FAA started the registration system to determine the number of drones in the United States (Stuckenberg & Maddox, 2019). After one month of site registration, about 300,000 drones’ owners registered their vehicles (Stuckenberg & Maddox, 2019). The figure was also expected to increase with time. The AUVSI (the Association of the unnamed Vehicle system international), the leading industry in robotics, published an official report in 2010. The lobbying effort and the report message were foreseeable, considering AUVSI’s primary legislative goal. AUVSI cautioned that failure to integrate UAS could hamper the military gameness, thus limiting the ability of the DOD (Department of the Defense) to stay at the forefront of the newer technology and adversely affected jobs in the aviation sector (Stuckenberg & Maddox, 2019). Lack of military preparedness in implementing the drones in the NAS during the global terror was a notable weakness of the drone’s ineffectiveness. FMRA (Federal Aviation Administration Modernization and Reform Act) was passed in 2012 (Stuckenberg & Maddox, 2019), and since then, three important dates have been recorded. The initial date was on 14th May 2012, whereby some procedures were approved for drones flown by the safety agencies and the law enforcement (Stuckenberg & Maddox, 2019). The second date was on 12th August 2020 about the drone legislation into NAS. The secretary of transportation deemed it safer to fly before the FMRA procedures were completed and an experimental program to be implemented for the drone flights in the Arctic and the U.S. On 10th November, the FAA streamlined the COA process for the drones operated by the government, whereby a detailed plan was developed for deploying the privately-owned counterparts. In 2020, the FAA announced two final rules for further drones’ integration in the NAS. The two rules were the remote ID rule and the Operations rules. The two rules were to be published later for them to be effective after sixty days. The remote ID rule established newer requirements whereby drones were broadcasted using a separate device or a built-in technology. According to FAA, the remote identification was a digital drone license that remotely identified the messages that included data like the drone’s serial number or the module broadcast, coordinates information, the velocity and attitude of the drone, and the information about the drone’s control systems (Stuckenberg & Maddox, 2019). Under the operational rule, the drone’s owners who hardly participated were banned unless covered by the stationary body or drone flying at night (Parker, 2019). The operation rule allowed the drone owners to operate at night if they had undergone extra training in flying the drones. As a strategy of reducing collisions, the drone owner was provided with anti-flashing collision lights that could be perceived three statute miles (Parker, 2019). The operation rule and the remote ID were the stepping block to the next phase of the drone’s integrations into the NAS. The FAA will require the drone community to improve its safety. Most of the drones are flown in restricted airspace or combat area in the United States. The accidents that occur in the named locations are generally outside the FAA’s influence. Very few UAS are flown with FAA approval. Hence, the UAS operations must require the FAA’s certificate of authorization. An interconnected drone integration into the NAS relies on the drone community adapting the FAA scrutiny and regulations. ReferencesHatfield, M., Cahill, C., Webley, P., Garron, J., & Beltran, R. (2020). Integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system-efforts by the University of Alaska to support the faa/NASA uas traffic management program. Remote Sensing, 12(19), 3112. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12193112Parker, R. (2019). Drones haven’t yet transformed our skies. Here are four reasons why. https://sifted.eu/articles/drone-business-case/Stuckenberg, D., & Maddox, S. (2019). Drones in the U.S. national airspace system. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, 502-524. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-8365-3.ch023Yaacoub, J., Noura, H., Salman, O., & Chehab, A. (2020). Security analysis of drones systems: Attacks, limitations, and recommendations. Internet of Things, 11, 100218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iot.2020.100218