INTEGRATING SOURCES INTO YOUR PAPER
INTEGRATING SOURCES INTO YOUR PAPER
In a RESEARCH PAPER, knowing how to effectively integrate sources is extremely important. Being able to integrate sources is important because it helps you:
· Bolster your point with the credibility or reputation of the source.
· Identify others’ opinions, theories, and personal explanations.
· Present assertions of fact that are open to dispute.
· Present statistics.
· Establish your ethos as a good, reliable scholar/researcher.
· Let readers know where to find information on your topic.
Generally speaking, there are three ways to integrate sources into a research paper – summarizing, paraphrasing and quoting. First, it is important to understand the difference between these three things:
SUMMARY – A relatively brief objective account, in your own words, of the main ideas in a source or a source passage.
PARAPHRASE – A restatement, in your own words, of a passage of text. Its structure reflects (but does not copy) the structure of the source passage, and may be roughly the same length as the passage, but does not use exact wording.
QUOTE – Using the exact words of a source.
(You will want to summarize and paraphrase most often in your research paper, using direct quotes sparingly. Putting source material in your own words shows readers that you have a true understanding of that material. Also, to restate in your own words the full meaning of a phrase or passage helps readers understand difficult, complex, jargon-riddled or ambiguous passages. Such passages, if quoted, will still require extensive explanation in order to be understood.
( Following are some good reasons to use direct quotes:
· The source author has made a point so clearly and concisely that it can’t be expressed more clearly and concisely.
· A certain phrase or sentence in the source is particularly vivid or striking, or especially typical or representative of some phenomenon you are discussing.
· An important passage is sufficiently difficult, dense, or rich that it requires you to analyze it closely, which in turn requires that the passage be produced so the reader can follow your analysis.
· A claim you are making is such that the doubting reader will want to hear exactly what the source said. This will often be the case when you criticize or disagree with a source; your reader wants to feel sure you aren’t misrepresenting the source aren’t creating a straw man (or woman). And you need to quote enough of the source so the context and meaning are clear.
WRITING SUMMARIES AND PARAPHRASES
To write a summary or paraphrase, first read and reread your source until you understand exactly what it is saying. Write down the relevant information from the source. At this point you may still be using phrasing and language from the source. So next, rewrite this information into your own words and sentences so it becomes a coherent part of your paper written in your own style.
Remember, do not include your own ideas or commentary in the body of the summary or paraphrase. You should introduce a summary or paraphrase, then give your own ideas that show the significance of that summary or paraphrase afterward. You don’t want your reader to become confused about which information is yours and which is the source’s. And you always have to document summaries and paraphrases since the ideas are not your own.
Failing to document any ideas that are not your own (whether they are summarized, paraphrased or quoted) constitutes plagiarism.
1. Instructions: Below is a quotation followed by three samples, one of which inadvertently plagiarizes. See if you can identify what each sample is (a paraphrase or a summary), and see if you can “catch” the one that inadvertently plagiarizes.
“Empire State College has a policy describing the conditions under which students may be warned or withdrawn from the College for such unethical academic behavior as plagiarism, forgery, misrepresentation, or other dishonest or deceptive acts which constitute grounds for warning or administrative withdrawal” (CDL Student Handbook 5).
a. The Student Handbook states that the College may dismiss students who in any way present others’ work as their own (5).
b. According to policy in the Student Handbook, Empire State College may take punitive action (including dismissal) against students who act fraudulently. Fraudulent action includes using the words or ideas of others without proper attribution, falsifying documents, or depicting the words of others as one’s own (5).
c. The Student Handbook states that the College has a policy that describes the different instances under which students may be withdrawn from the College. These instances include plagiarism, forgery, misrepresentation, and other instances that show dishonest .
2. Instructions: Write a summary or paraphrase of the paragraph below.
“Beginning in 1952, television caused structural as well as superficial changes in American politics. That year, delegates of both parties were warned that the probing television lenses could capture every movement they made in their chairs. They were admonished to be careful about what they said to one another lest lip readers pick up the conversation from the television screen. Women delegates were cautioned against affronting blue-collar viewers by wearing showy jewelry” (Donovan and Scherer 21).
TIPS FOR USING DIRECT QUOTES
1. Always have a good reason for using a direct quote. Otherwise, paraphrase or summarize.
2. Do not allow quotes to speak for themselves. Your research paper is ultimately about communicating YOUR IDEAS. Your research simply helps prove or support those ideas. So, you should not just string other peoples ideas together giving quote after quote.
3. Always make sure you provide an analysis of the quote. Show your readers that you understand how the quote relates to your ideas by analyzing its significance.
4. Do not use quotes as padding. This is related to tips 1, 2 and 3. Very long quotes will require long explanations of their significance. If quotes do not have adequate analysis, readers will feel that you don’t have a grasp on what that quote means, and they also might feel that you are using quotes as “filler” to take up space.
5. Extract those parts of the passage that need quoting, and integrate quotes smoothly into your text. Following are some ideas on how to do this:
· Avoid wordy or awkward introductions to a quote:
In Simone de Beavoir’s book The Coming of Age, on page 65 she states, “The decrepitude accompanying old age is in complete conflict with the manly or womanly ideal cherished by the young and fully grown.” OR
In The Coming of Age, Simone de Beavoir contends that “the decrepitude accompanying old age is “in complete conflict with the manly or womanly ideal cherished by the young and fully grown” (65).
· Choose your introductory verb carefully: If you want to use a neutral verb, try using these: writes, says, states, observes, suggests, remarks, etc. If you want to convey and attitude or emotion try using verbs such as laments, protests, charges, replies, admits, claims, etc.
· Combine quotes with a paraphrase or analysis:
Original: Tania Modleski suggests that “if television is considered by some
to be a vast wasteland, soap operas are thought to be the least nourishing
spot in the desert” (123).
Revised: In her critique of soap operas, Tania Modleski argues that some
view television as “a vast wasteland” and soap operas as “the least nourishing
spot in the desert” (123).
· Use a few words of a quote for effect:
Example: As William Kneale suggests, some humans have a “moral deafness” which is never punctured no matter what the moral treatment (93).
RULES FOR PUNCTUATING QUOTES
· If your quotations are less than four lines long (which is usually the case), place them in your text and enclose them with quotation marks.
· Remember to include a parenthetical citation for each quotation used.
Example: Pearl, who is Hawthorne’s symbol of truth, reaches a proportionately happy conclusion, becoming “the richest heiress of her day, in the New World” (243).
Example: Edward Zigler laments, “One finds violence, hostility, and aggression everywhere, including TV, the movies, and in many of our everyday social relations” (40).
· If your quote is not introduced with an author’s name, you will need to put that name in the parenthetical citation.
Example: For example, “One finds violence, hostility and aggression everywhere, including TV, the movies, and in many of our everyday social relations” (Zigler 40).
· If a quotation is more than four lines long, set it off from your text by indenting.
· Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon.
· Indent 10 spaces, double space the lines, and do not use quotation marks.
· Do not indent the opening line unless the quote begins a new paragraph.
Example: Robert Hastrow sums up the process in the following passage, where he compares rays of
light to a ball thrown up from the earth and returning because of the pull of gravity:
The tug of that enormous force prevents the ray of light from leaving the surface of the star; like the ball thrown upward from the earth, they are pulled back and cannot escape to space. All the light within the star is now trapped by gravity. From this moment on, the star is invisible. It is a black hole in space (65).
Ellipses Use ellipses to indicate when you have omitted unnecessary words from a direct quote.
“Even to take drugs once or twice,” Diamond writes, “I must be strong enough to get past . . . the misery of my first hangover” (199).
( You do not need to quote or cite information that is common knowledge. (The earth revolves around the sun. Excessive consumption of alcohol can impair your judgement).
Remember, avoid plagiarism at all costs! When in doubt, provide a citation.