Introduction To Management

BUS102 Introduction to Management


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Week 4


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Organisational culture

• Culture within organisations reflects the attitudes, beliefs, values, norms and expectations that employees have in common.

• It is otherwise referred to as “what it’s like to work around here”.

• In this lecture, we will discuss the different types of organisational culture, how they’re formed and, perhaps most importantly, how they can be modified.

Core organisational values

• Every organisational culture is characterised by where it sits on a continuum of values.

• There are generally six values:

– Sensitivity to the needs of customers and employees. – Interest in having employees generate new ideas. – Willingness to take risks. – The value placed on people. – Openness of available communication options. – Friendliness and congeniality of the employees toward

one another.

Source: Martin, 1996


• Watch the following clip:

• In groups, evaluate the culture on that factory floor as per the six values on the previous slide.

• Rate each value as high, low, or medium.

• How does your evaluation compare to the other groups’ evaluations?

Cultures and sub-cultures

• Organisations, especially larger ones, are comprised of multiple cultures.

• These are known as sub-cultures.

• An organisation may have one overall dominant culture but its sub-cultures can still be quite different from each other.

• For example, the culture in the call centre may differ from the one in finance. And the culture in head office may differ from the one in a regional area.

The role of culture

• Culture serves multiple functions

within organisations and teams:

– It provides a sense of identity.

– It generates commitment to the vision.

– It clarifies and reinforces standards of behaviour.

Four types of culture

Source: Cameron and Quinn, 1999


• The previous slide introduced you to four types of culture:

– Clan culture – Adhocracy culture – Hierarchy culture – Market culture

• In groups, think of at least two well-known companies for each category.

• What evidence do you have that the companies have that type of culture?

How is culture developed?

• There are several ways in which organisational culture develops over time, usually via:

– Symbols – Slogans – Stories – Jargon – Ceremonies – Statements of principle


• Kaplan Business School is like any other enterprise. It has a culture it is trying to cultivate among students and staff.

• So, go for a walk around the campus and find one example for each of the six cultural components profiled on the previous slide.

• Make sure you return within 6 minutes.

• What did you find?

Culture change

• There are various ways that organisational culture can change.

• Mergers and acquisitions are one way. The recruitment of different employees is another.

• Culture change can also occur via the intentional efforts of managers.

Culture change

To change an organisation’s culture, managers generally go through four phases:

1. An honest assessment of what the culture is like.

2. A well-defined notion of the ideal future culture.

3. The identification of gaps between what the culture is like today and where it needs to be.

4. An action plan of what needs to change in order for the culture to change.

The model on the next slide provides some guidance regarding that fourth point.

Culture change

Source: Nous Group, 2017


• Watch this clip:

• Imagine you have been hired by Amazon as a management consultant.

• Using the model on the previous slide as a guide, identify an example for each of the seven components that could generate culture change within Amazon.


• This lecture discussed the values that determine what an organisational culture is like and how these can vary depending on sub-cultures.

• We also looked at four types of culture: clan, adhocracy, market and hierarchy, and the way these are developed over time via:

– Symbols, slogans, stories, jargon, ceremonies, and statements of purpose.

• Then, using an industry-led model, we explored how culture can be changed within organisations.


Tutorial – Academic Development

• Understanding marking rubrics –

go to Assessment 1 and review


• Sentences & grammar activity –

hand out in week 4

Assessment 1

• Assessment 1 support

– Are you on track?

– Questions?

– Drafts

• Due on Monday week 5 at


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