Lab 5, Homework 11-14 for Chemistry

Investigating Chemical
Time Requirements
Activity 1
10 Activity 2
10 Activity 3
12 Activity 4
12 Activity 5
13 Activity 6
14 Activity 7
14 Disposal and Cleanup
15 Data Table 1
The common types of chemical reactions are studied and
performed in this investigation, including synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion.
Chemical products are predicted for each reaction based on
observations and chemical tests. A balanced chemical equation
will be written for each reaction. After the investigation, a series of
known reactions will be presented to classify and balance.
• Describe common types of chemical reactions.
• Predict products from common chemical reactions, including
synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double
replacement, and combustion.
• Write balanced chemical equations.
• Classify chemical reactions by type.
• Identify heat as a possible product or reactant.
Time Requirements
Preparation ……………………………………………………………10 minutes
Activity 1: Synthesis Reaction …………………………………. 20 minutes
Activity 2: Decomposition Reaction …………………………. 15 minutes
Activity 3: Single-Replacement Reaction ………………….. 20 minutes
Activity 4: Double-Replacement Reaction ………………… 15 minutes
Activity 5: Combustion Reaction ……………………………… 10 minutes
Activity 6: Precipitation Reaction …………………………….. 15 minutes
Activity 7: Combustion Reaction ……………………………….. 5 minutes
Personal protective
goggles gloves apron
Made ADA compliant by
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link to
photograph stopwatch
results and
warning corrosion flammable toxic environment health hazard
Knowing how to recognize common types
of chemical reactions allows a chemist to
accurately predict the products of a given
reaction. Chemical reactions can be grouped
into the following five common reaction types:
(1) synthesis, (2) decomposition, (3) single
replacement, (4) double replacement, and (5)
1. Synthesis Reactions
Synthesis means to combine or put together.
These reactions are sometimes referred to as
combination reactions. In a synthesis reaction,
two or more reactants combine to make a single
new product.
A + B ➝ AB
Examples of synthesis reactions:
C (s) + O2 (g) ➝ CO2 (g) + Heat
H2O (l) + SO3 (g) ➝ H2SO4 (aq)
2. Decomposition Reactions
Decomposition means to break down. In a
decomposition reaction, a single reactant
compound breaks down to form two or more
new products.
AB ➝ A + B
Examples of decomposition reactions:
H2CO3 (aq) ➝ H2O (l) + CO2 (g)
3. Single-Replacement Reactions
Single-replacement reactions occur when a
single element in one reactant replaces a similar
single element in another reactant. This reaction
is sometimes called a displacement or substitution reaction.
A + BC ➝ AC + B
Examples of single-replacement reactions:
Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) ➝ ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)
Fe2O3 (s) + 2Al (s) ➝ 2Fe (s) + Al2O3 (s) + Heat
4. Double-Replacement Reactions
In double-replacement reactions, two ionic
compounds exchange ions to produce two new
ionic compounds. This reaction is sometimes
called a metathesis reaction. The reactants are
usually aqueous solutions, and the driving force
is the formation of a precipitate, gas, or liquid
product. When the product is a precipitate, the
reaction is called a precipitation reaction.
AB + CD ➝ AD + CB
Examples of double-replacement reactions:
NaCl (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) ➝ NaNO3 (aq) +
AgCl (s)
BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) ➝ BaSO4 (s) +
2NaCl (aq)
CaCO3 (s) ➝ CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
2NI3 ➝ N2 (g) + 3I2 (s)
continued on next page
Background continued
One type of double-replacement reaction is an
acid-base reaction, in which a reaction occurs
between an acid and a base. A hydronium ion
(H+) reacts with a hydroxide ion (OH-) to form
water, and the cation and anion form an aqueous
Examples of acid–base reactions:
HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ➝ NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)
H2SO4 (aq) + 2NH4OH (aq) ➝ (NH4)2SO4 (aq) +
H2O (l)
5. Combustion Reactions
Combustion reactions involve a single element
or compound that combines with oxygen gas
to release heat and light. This rapid oxidation is
commonly called burning.
Examples of single-element combustion
C (s) + O2 (g) ➝ CO2 (g) + Energy
2Mg (s) + O2 (g) ➝ 2MgO + Energy
Hydrocarbons are prime examples of
compounds that react with oxygen gas by
combustion. Hydrocarbons are a significant
portion of the fossil fuels that are burned to
produce energy. Complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels produces carbon dioxide, water
vapor, and energy.
Examples of hydrocarbon combustion
C2H5OH (l) + 3O2 (g) ➝ 2CO2 (g) + 3H2O (g) +
CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) ➝ CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g) +
Evidence for the occurrence of chemical
reactions includes precipitate formation,
gas evolution, pH change, heat release or
absorption, or color change. Any one of these
events can indicate a chemical reaction. If a
chemical reaction results in the production
of a gaseous product, then simple chemical
tests can be used to confirm gaseous reaction
products. These chemical tests are also
chemical reactions.
continued on next page
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Standard Tests for Gaseous Products
Oxygen Gas: To test for oxygen gas, insert a
glowing splint into a container of collected gas
(Figure 1). If the splint bursts back into flame, the
test is positive for oxygen gas. Oxygen supports
combustion, and the oxygen-rich environment
inside the container causes the glowing splint to
burn. Sometimes the glowing splint can create a
small pop when first exposed to the oxygen.
Hydrogen Gas: To test for hydrogen gas, insert
a flaming splint into a container of collected
gas held at a 45-degree angle (Figure 2). If a
loud pop or barking sound is heard, the test is
positive for hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas
will react with oxygen in the atmosphere when
ignited as follows:
Carbon Dioxide Gas: To test for carbon dioxide
gas, bubble the collected gas through limewater. If a precipitate forms, the test is positive
for carbon dioxide gas. The carbon dioxide gas
[CO2 (g)] reacts with the limewater [Ca(OH)2
(aq)] to produce insoluble CaCO3 and water as
CO2 (g) + Ca(OH)2 (aq) ➝ CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l)
A glowing or burning splint will extinguish in
carbon dioxide, but this is not a decisive test.
In addition to carbon dioxide, there are other
gasses that also do not support combustion.
2H2 (g) + O2 (g) ➝ 2H2O (g) + Energy
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Needed from chemical set 1:
Included in the materials kit:
1-hole rubber
stopper, #4
1-hole rubber
stopper, #00
peroxide, 3%
White vinegar,
acetic acid,
110 mL
Baking soda,
Needed from chemical set 2:
Plastic tubing
Glass test
tube, large
(25 × 150 mm)
3 Rubber
Dry yeast
Wooden splints
Carolina Distance Learning
acid, 1 M HCl
continued on next page
Needed from the equipment kit:
10 mL
50 mL
2 Pipets
250 mL
Test-tube rack
Needed, but not supplied:
• Matches (or a lighter)
• Paper towels
• Scissors
• Small cup, 7 oz or greater
• Timer
• Water, purified (commercially available)
• Digital camera, or cell phone with
camera capability
Reorder Information: Replacement supplies
for the Investigating Chemical Reactions
investigation can be ordered from Carolina
Biological Supply Company, kit 580312.
Glass test
tube, small
(13 × 100 mm)
test tube (17 ×
100 mm)
Call 800-334-5551 to order.
Wear your safety
goggles, chemical
apron, and gloves at
all times while conducting this investigation.
Read all the instructions for this laboratory
activity before beginning. Follow the instructions
closely, and observe established laboratory
safety practices, including the use of appropriate
personal protective equipment (PPE) as
described in the Safety and Procedure sections.
Hydrogen peroxide, vinegar, and baking soda
are not packaged for household consumption
or use. They should be considered chemicals
and kept away from children and pets.
Magnesium metal ribbon is a
combustible metal. Keep chemical
away from any heat or flame sources.
Vinegar and hydrogen peroxide
cause skin and eye irritation.
Limewater, hydrogen peroxide,
and hydrochloric acid are corrosive
materials. Use these materials near a
source of running water that can be used as a
safety eyewash or safety shower if any corrosive
material comes in contact with skin or eyes.
Do not eat, drink, or chew gum while
performing this activity. Wash your hands with
soap and water before and after performing the
activity. Clean up the work area with soap and
water after completing the investigation. Keep
pets and children away from lab materials and
Glass test tubes are provided in the Investigating Chemical Reactions materials kit and are
more resistant to heat and chemicals than the
polystyrene (plastic) test tubes in the equipment
kit. Use the glass test tubes as instructed in the
Investigating Chemical Reactions manual. If a
glass test tube breaks, carefully clean up the
broken glass, and dispose of it in an appropriate
1. Read through the procedure.
2. Obtain all materials.
3. Use a pair of scissors to cut a 1-cm piece of
magnesium ribbon for Activity 3.
4. Assemble the gas-collection stopper for
Activity 6.
Figure 3.
a. Use scissors to
remove the tip
and bulb from
a plastic disposable pipet to
create a
2-inch plastic
b. Insert the plastic
pipette tube into the
hole in the large #4
rubber stopper. Use
the forceps to squeeze
the tube and push it through the hole. A
small drop of soap inside the dropper hole
will help this process.
c. Connect airline tubing
to the top (the larger
end) of the plastic
pipette tube extending
from the top
continued on next page
of the rubber
Carolina Distance Learning
Preparation continued
Vinegar does not participate in the
synthesis reaction. In this procedure,
vinegar strips away the protective coating
on the steel-wool pad, and provides an
acidic environment that accelerates the
subsequent chemical reaction.
5. Optional: Wrap a rubber band around each
glass test tube to prevent it from rolling
off the table/workstation and potentially
Three different test tubes are used in this
investigation. The materials kit contains a
large glass test tube. The equipment kit
contains a smaller glass test tube and polystyrene (plastic) test tubes. Carefully read the
instructions to ensure that the correct test
tube (or tubes) is used during each activity.
6. Remove the steel wool from the cup, and
carefully squeeze the excess vinegar back
into the cup. Keep the small cup of vinegar
for use in Activity 4.
7. Wrap the damp steel wool piece around the
bulb of the thermometer, and secure it in
place with the rubber band.
Figure 4.
A Synthesis Reaction
1. Measure 50 mL of white vinegar in the
graduated cylinder, and then pour it into the
small cup.
2. Measure the room temperature using a
thermometer, and record the measurement in
Data Table 1.
3. Place the thermometer and a rubber band on
a paper towel.
4. While wearing protective gloves, tear or cut
the steel-wool pad in half. Place one of the
halves of steel wool on the paper towel. This
half will be used later for comparison. Assume
that this piece of steel wool remains at room
5. Place the other half of steel wool in the cup
containing the white vinegar, and gently press
it down to completely submerge it in the
vinegar. Keep this steel wool submerged in
the vinegar for 2 minutes.
8. Place the steel-wool-wrapped thermometer
on the paper towel.
Record the temperature of the damp
steel wool. Start the timer.
10. Observe the synthesis reaction for 10
minutes. Record the temperature of the steel
wool at 5 and 10 minutes after the start of
the synthesis reaction. Enter your data into
Data Table 1.
continued on next page
ACTIVITY 1 continued
The thermometer may have to be slid
part-way out of the steel wool to observe
the temperature scale, and then quickly slid
back into the steel wool. Do not touch the
bulb end of the thermometer during this
At 10 minutes after the start of the
synthesis reaction, compare the
appearance of the vinegar-treated steel wool
to that of the dry steel wool. Record your
observations in Data Table 1. Photograph
your observations.
12. Remove the thermometer from the steel
13. Rinse the thermometer and graduated
cylinder with purified water, and dry with
paper towels.
14. Discard paper towels, steel wool, and rubber
band in the trash.
A Decomposition Reaction
1. Measure 10 mL of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
solution in the graduated cylinder, and then
pour it into the large glass test tube.
2. Place the large test tube containing H2O2
upright in a clean, empty, 250-mL beaker.
Use the plastic minispoon to measure
two level spoonfuls of dry yeast; add
both spoonfuls to the hydrogen peroxide
solution in the large test tube. Start the timer.
Carolina Distance Learning
Yeast is not part of the decomposition reaction. Yeast contains a protein that catalyzes
the reaction.
Observe the decomposition reaction
for 1 minute, and record your
observations in Data Table 1. Photograph
your observations.
5. Gently swirl the contents of the large test tube
for one minute and record your observations
in Data Table 1.
6. Using the information described in “Standard
Tests for Gaseous Products” predict the result
of 6a and 6b.
a. Insert a glowing splint into the large test
tube. Record your observations in Data
Table 1.
b. Insert a flaming splint into the large test
tube. Record your observations in Data
Table 1.
7. After finishing Step 6, dispose of the contents
of the large test tube down the drain.
8. Thoroughly rinse the 250-mL beaker and large
test tube with purified water, and dry them
with paper towels.
A Single-Replacement Reaction
1. Cut a 1-cm strip off of the longer strip of
2. Insert the 1-cm strip of magnesium a few
millimeters into the hole on the smaller
tapered end of the small, #00 1-hole rubber
stopper as shown in Figure 5.
continued on next page
Figure 5.
Place your forefinger over the hole in
the rubber stopper, carefully invert the
test tube, and then place the inverted test
tube into the beaker of water, allowing it to
rest in the beaker at a 45-degree angle as
seen in Figure 6. Start the timer.
Figure 6.
3. Fill the 250-mL beaker with tap water to
within 3 centimeters from the rim.
4. Using the 10-mL graduated cylinder, measure
3 mL of 1 M HCl, and add it to the small glass
test tube.
5. Add 50 mL of purified water to the 50-mL
graduated cylinder.
6. Hold the small glass test tube containing the
HCl at a 45-degree angle.
7. Use the plastic pipette to slowly add the
water from the graduated cylinder to the test
tube containing the HCl. Try to layer the water
on top of the HCl by gently pipetting the
water down the side of the glass test tube.
The objective is to contain the solution of
hydrochloric acid at the bottom of the test
tube to prevent the reaction from starting
too quickly in Step 9.
8. Continue filling the glass test tube by
repeating Step 6 until the water level is within
one centimeter from the top of the test tube.
9. Hold the glass test tube over the beaker, and
then carefully insert the stopper fitted with the
magnesium strip into the opening of the glass
test tube. Allow any overflow water to drain
into the beaker.
11. Observe the single-replacement reaction for
10 minutes. Record your observations in
Data Table 1.
As the glass test tube fills with gas, water
escapes through the hole in the rubber
stopper. Once the water is completely
expelled from the glass test tube, bubbles
will begin to emerge from the hole in the
rubber stopper. When this happens, pick up
the glass test tube, and hold it vertically with
the rubber stopper at the bottom.
The gases in the test tube are lighter than
air, so keep the test tube inverted (with the
opening pointing downward).
Carefully remove the stopper, and place the
opening of the inverted glass test tube on a
level surface. A tube full of a gas has been
continued on next page
ACTIVITY 3 continued
12. Refer to the section describing the standard
tests for confirming gases (“Standard Tests
for Gaseous Products”). Pick up the glass
test tube and hold it, still inverted, at a
45-degree angle.
13. Insert a flaming splint into the opening of the
glass test tube. Record your observations in
Data Table 1.
tests for confirming gases (“Standard Tests
for Gaseous Products”).
a. Insert a glowing splint into the small cup.
Record your observations in Data Table 1.
b. Insert a flaming splint into the small cup.
Record your observations in Data Table 1.
9. Keep the small cup containing vinegar and
baking soda to use in Activity 5.
10. Keep the weighing boat used for measuring
the baking soda to use in Activity 6.
14. Thoroughly rinse the 250-mL beaker, rubber
stopper, and glass test tube with purified
water. Dry each of them with a paper towel.
A Combustion Reaction
A Double-Replacement Reaction
1. Locate the cup containing 50 mL of vinegar
that was saved from Activity 1.
1. Light the candle with a match (or a lighter).
The fuel that supports burning of the wick is
CAUTION: Hold the test tube opening a
centimeter above the flame to capture all
the gases. Hold the test tube at the opposite
end away from the flame, so that you do not
burn your fingers.
2. Use a weighing boat to measure 10 g of
baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3 )
on the balance.
3. Pour the baking soda into the small cup
containing the vinegar.
Loosely cover the cup with a small
piece of paper towel to retain more of
the gas in the cup. Start the timer.
Observe the double-displacement
reaction for 1 minute. Photograph your
6. Gently swirl the contents of the cup to
complete the reaction. Remove the small
piece of paper towel covering the top of the
cup, and observe the contents.
7. Record your observations in Data Table 1.
8. Refer to the section describing the standard
2. Hold the small glass test tube in an inverted
position (with the opening facing downward)
over the candle wick for 30 seconds. This
collects the gases released by the burning
candle. After 30 seconds, move the inverted
test tube away from the flame. Keep the test
tube inverted.
Record your observations of the gasses
collected in the small test tube in Data
Table 1. Photograph your observations.
4. Locate the small cup containing the vinegar
and baking soda from Activity 4.
continued on next page
Carolina Distance Learning
5. Slowly add another 50 mL of white vinegar to
the small cup.
3. Place the large test tube containing the
baking soda into the 250-mL beaker.
6. Carefully pour the gasses that are generated
over the candle flame.
4. Measure 10 mL of white vinegar in the 50-mL
graduated cylinder. Pour this 10 mL of vinegar
into the polystyrene test tube.
7. Record your observations in Data Table 1.
Convection currents may have removed
gas. Adding additional vinegar will regenerate the gas.
The polystyrene test tube is thinner and
shorter than the large test tube, so it fits
completely inside the large test tube.
To pour the gases, hold the small cup over
the candle, and tilt it as far as possible
while keeping the vinegar and baking soda
retained inside the cup.
5. Place the polystyrene test tube containing
the vinegar into the large test tube containing
the baking soda. Both test tubes should be
in upright positions (with the openings facing
8. If necessary, extinguish the candle flame.
6. Carefully insert the gas-collection stopper
into the large test tube, which is resting in the
beaker. The plastic tubing will hang freely out
of the beaker.
9. Pour the remaining vinegar and baking soda
solution down the drain, and flush with
excess water.
10. Thoroughly rinse the small cup with purified
water, and dry it with a paper towel.
A Precipitation Reaction
1. Locate the gas-collection stopper with the
plastic pipet tube that was constructed during
the Preparation steps (Figure 3).
2. Use the weighing boat, and measure 5 g of
baking soda using the electronic balance.
Add this 5 g of baking soda to the large test
It is easier to pour the baking soda into
the large test tube by carefully folding the
weighing boat diagonally, which creates a
7. Add limewater to the small glass test tube
until the tube is approximately one-half full.
Limewater contains calcium hydroxide,
Ca(OH)2, dissolved in water.
8. Place the glass test tube containing the
limewater in the cardboard test-tube rack.
9. Tilt the large test tube horizontally, so that
vinegar pours out of the polystyrene test tube
into the larger test tube, and reacts with the
baking soda.
10. As soon as the reaction starts, stop adding
vinegar to the reaction and quickly place
the free end of the plastic tubing into the
limewater solution in the small test tube.
continued on next page
ACTIVITY 6 continued
The vinegar and baking soda react to
generate carbon dioxide gas. The gas is
then bubbled into the limewater. The first
gas to come out of the tube will be mostly
air until the large test tube fills up with the
carbon dioxide gas. Place the end of the
plastic tube as far into the limewater solution as possible to increase the reaction
11. As the generation of carbon dioxide slows,
again tilt the large test tube to pour more
vinegar into the baking soda. Be careful
that the plastic tubing remains immersed in
the limewater. Repeat this step until all the
vinegar is consumed.
12. Observe the limewater solution and record
your observations in Data Table 1.
13. Swirl the large test tube to complete the
reaction of all the vinegar and baking soda.
When no more gas is generated,
remove the plastic tubing from the
limewater solution. Start the timer. Allow the
limewater solution to sit, undisturbed, for 5
After 5 minutes, record any additional
observations in Data Table 1.
Photograph your observations.
A Combustion Reaction
1. Gently pull apart the unused half of the steelwool pad from Activity 1. Use approximately
1 4 of the remaining steel-wool pad for this
Carolina Distance Learning
The steel wool is tightly packed; by pulling
the fibers apart, more surface area is
exposed. The steel-wool fibers should be
visible and separated from one another.
2. Light the candle.
3. Hold the steel wool with the forceps over a
cookie sheet or large plate.
CAUTION: The cookie sheet will catch any
burning particles from the steel wool and
protect the counter top or table.
4. Attempt to ignite the steel-wool fibers with the
flame of the candle.
5. Record any observations in Data Table 1.
Disposal and Cleanup
1. Ensure that each used wooden splint is
extinguished by dipping each used splint into
2. Discard weighing boat, wooden splints, paper
towels, and nitrile gloves in the trash.
3. Wash and dry the beaker, test tubes,
graduated cylinders, minispoon, rubber
stopper, small cup, forceps, and thermometer.
4. Clean and sanitize the work space.
Data Table 1: Experimental Data and Observations
Observations and Data
1. Synthesis
2. Decomposition
3. Single-replacement
4. Double-replacement
5. Combustion
6. Precipitation
7. Combustion
Investigating Chemical Reactions
Investigation Manual
Carolina Biological Supply Company • 800.334.5551
©2016 Carolina Biological Supply Company
Investigating Chemical Reactions
Student Name
Activity 1: Synthesis Reaction
Data Table 1
© 2016 Carolina Biological Supply Company
Observations and Data
Observations and Data
1. Describe all of the signs that indicated a chemical reaction occurred.
2. Describe the temperature change that occurred during this reaction. Is heat
required or produced during the reaction?
3. Describe any other changes that were observed in the steel wool. What
reaction might create such a change?
4. Write a balanced equation for the reaction of the steel wool with oxygen. Be
sure to include heat energy in the reaction.
Activity 2: Decomposition Reaction
5. What two gases could potentially be produced from decomposing
hydrogen peroxide? Which gas was actually produced? What non-gaseous
product formed from the reaction?
6. Write a balanced equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
Activity 3: Single-Replacement Reaction
7. What gases could potentially be produced from hydrochloric acid (HCl)?
Which gas was actually produced?
8. Why did the splint need to be tilted at a 45-degree angle?
9. a. Write a balanced equation for the reaction initiated by the burning splint.
b. Classify the reaction initiated by the burning splint.
10. Write a balanced equation for the reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric
© 2016 Carolina Biological Supply Company
Activity 4: Double-Replacement Reaction
11. What is the name and molecular formula of the gas formed when baking
soda was combined with vinegar, which you identified using flaming and
glowing splints?
12. Write a balanced chemical equation for the double-replacement reaction
that occurred when baking soda was combined with vinegar.
13. One of the two products of the reaction of baking soda and vinegar is
carbonic acid (H2CO3), which immediately forms water and the gas you
identified after exposure to the flaming and glowing splints. Write a balanced
equation showing the decomposition of carbonic acid.
Activity 5: Combustion Reaction
14. Explain why water appeared on the inside of the glass test tube.
15. Write a balanced equation for the combustion reaction.
Activity 6: Precipitation Reaction
16. Write a balanced equation for the precipitation reaction. Which product is
the precipitate?
© 2016 Carolina Biological Supply Company

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