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Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Hands-On Labs, Inc.
Version 42-0201-00-02
Lab Report Assistant
This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report
Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data
tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’
writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an
instructor.
Exercise 1: Stoichiometry and a Precipitation
Reaction
Data Table 1. Stoichiometry Values.
Initial: CaCl2•2H2O (g)
Initial: CaCl2•2H2O (moles)
Initial: CaCl2 (moles)
Initial: Na2CO3 (moles)
Initial: Na2CO3 (g)
Theoretical: CaCO3 (g)
Mass of Filter paper (g)
Mass of Filter Paper + CaCO 3 (g)
Actual: CaCO 3 (g)
% Yield:
Questions
A.
A perfect percent yield would be 100%. Based on your results, describe your degree of
accuracy and suggest possible sources of error.
B.
What impact would adding twice as much Na 2CO3 than required for stoichiometric
quantities have on the quantity of product produced?
C.
Determine the quantity (g) of pure CaCl 2 in 7.5 g of CaCl 2•9H2O.
D.
Determine the quantity (g) of pure MgSO 4 in 2.4 g of MgSO 4•7H2O.
E.
Conservation of mass was discussed in the background. Describe how conservation of mass
(actual, not theoretical) could be checked in the experiment performed.
EXPERIMENT
Stoichiometry of a
Precipitation Reaction
Hands-On Labs, Inc.
Version 42-0201-00-02
Review the safety materials and wear goggles when
working with chemicals. Read the entire exercise
before you begin. Take time to organize the materials
you will need and set aside a safe work space in
which to complete the exercise.
Experiment Summary:
You will learn about precipitation reactions. You
will learn how to use stoichiometry to predict the
quantities of reactants necessary to produce the
maximum amount of precipitated product. Finally,
you will calculate percent yield from a precipitation
reaction and determine conservation of mass.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Learning Objectives
Upon completion of this laboratory, you will be able to:
●●
Identify and define the parts of a chemical reaction, including the reactants and products.
●●
Identify the defining characteristics of a precipitation reaction.
●●
Define the term stoichiometry, and discuss the importance of accurate calculations in
experimental design and outcomes.
●●
Describe how the molar quantity of a substance is related to its molecular weight and calculate
the molar quantity of various substances.
●●
Define the term hydrate and describe how hydrated compounds influence precipitation
reactions.
●●
Predict and calculate the theoretical maximum amount of product produced in a precipitation
reaction, using stoichiometry.
●●
Perform a precipitation reaction and measure the precipitate to calculate percent yield.
●●
Explain differences between theoretical and actual yield in a controlled experiment.
Time Allocation: 2.5 hours, plus an overnight drying period.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Materials
Student Supplied Materials
Quantity
1
1
1
1
Item Description
Bottle of distilled water
Dish soap
Roll of paper towels
Source of tap water
HOL Supplied Materials
Quantity
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
Item Description
Digital scale, precision
Funnel, 70 mm
Glass beakers, 100 mL
Pair of gloves
Pair of safety goggles
Experiment Bag: Stoichiometry of a Precipitation
Reaction:
1 – CaCl2•2H2O Calcium chloride, dihydrate – 2.5 g
1 – Filter paper, 12.5 cm
1 – Na2CO3 – Sodium carbonate – 2 g
1 – Weighing boat, plastic
Note: To fully and accurately complete all lab exercises, you will need access to:
1. A computer to upload digital camera images.
2. Basic photo editing software such as Microsoft Word or PowerPoint, to add labels, leader
lines, or text to digital photos.
3. Subject-specific textbook or appropriate reference resources from lecture content or other
suggested resources.
Note: The packaging and/or materials in this LabPaq kit may differ slightly from that which is listed
above. For an exact listing of materials, refer to the Contents List form included in your LabPaq kit.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Background
Chemical Equations
A chemical equation is an illustration of the reaction that occurs between two or more specific
chemical compounds. Chemical equations use letters and numbers to represent the chemical
elements and the amounts or ratios of those elements present in the compounds that are either
participating in the reaction or a product of the reaction. For example, one methane molecule
contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms and is denoted as CH4. The chemical
compounds that are present before a reaction occurs are called reactants, and the compounds
produced from the reaction are called products. In addition to identifying the products and
reactants in a balanced chemical reaction, a chemical equation will also quantitatively identify
the proportion of reactants to products. This quantitative proportion is known as stoichiometry,
and can be used to determine how much of each reactant is needed to produce a specific amount
of each product. See Figure 1.
Figure 1. A balanced chemical equation. The chemical equation shows the chemical reaction
between barium nitrate and copper sulfate. The equation shows that when 1 ion of barium
nitrate reacts with 1 ion of copper sulfate, 1 ion of barium sulfate and 1 ion of copper nitrate
are produced.
As shown in Figure 1, chemical equations often denote the physical states of the reactants and
products. The reaction in Figure 1 is a precipitation reaction, where two solutions are mixed
and an insoluble substance (precipitate) forms, which is then able to be separated or removed
from the solution. The (s) after BaSO4(s), denotes that a solid was formed as a product from the
two aqueous (aq) reactants. The stoichiometry of a balanced chemical equation can be used to
calculate the mass and number of moles of each reactant and each product in a chemical reaction.
Moles and the Periodic Table
A mole ( or mol) is a unit of measure, describing the amount of a chemical substance that
contains as many atoms, ions, or molecules as there are in exactly 12 grams of pure Carbon (12C).
One mole of a substance has 6.022 × 1023 atoms (for an element) or molecules (for a compound)
or ions (for an ionic compound), and is equal to its molecular weight (formula mass). For example,
the element nitrogen has a molecular weight of 14.01 grams, thus 1 mole of nitrogen is equal to
14.01 grams. Likewise, the compound H2O has a molecular weight of H + H + O (1.008 + 1.008
+ 16.00), thus 1 mole of H2O is equal to 18.016 grams. The molecular weight of each element is
found in the periodic table. See Figure 2.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Figure 2. Periodic Table of Elements. The molar mass of an element is equal to the mass in
grams required to equal 1 mole of the substance.
Stoichiometric Quantities and Calculations
In addition to determining the amount of product formed in a reaction, stoichiometry can be
used to determine how much of each reactant is required for all reactants to be used up at
the same time. The quantities of reactants that are needed to fully react with one another at
the same time are known as stoichiometric quantities. Stoichiometric quantities can be used to
maximize the amount of product produced from the chemical reaction. For example, if you were
performing the reaction in Figure 1 and had 3 grams of CuSO4, you can use the balanced chemical
equation and stoichiometry to determine how many grams of Ba(NO3)2 you would need to create
the maximum amount of BaSO4.
More specifically, to quantitatively calculate the maximum amount of product expected through
a chemical reaction, you need only a balanced chemical equation, the atomic mass of each
substance, and the quantity of substance available for only one of the reactants.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
A step-by-step example of this process, using the balanced equation from Figure 1, is shown
below:
Assuming there are only 5.7 grams of CuSO4 available, how many grams of Ba(NO3)2 are necessary
to reach stoichiometric quantities? How many grams of solid BaSO4 are expected to be produced?
Step 1. Check to ensure that the equation is balanced. To do this, ensure that there is the same
number of atoms from each element on both sides of the equation.
Step 2. Convert the 5.70 grams of CuSO4 to moles of CuSO4.
Step 3. Evaluate the molar ratio between CuSO4 and Ba(NO3)2.
The chemical equation states that for 1 mole of CuSO4, 1 mole of Ba(NO3)2 is needed for
stoichiometric quantities. Using the information calculated in step 2, if there are 0.0357 moles of
CuSO4, then 0.0357 moles of Ba(NO3)2 are required for a complete reaction.
Step 4. Convert moles of Ba(NO3)2 to grams of Ba(NO3)2.
This shows that 9.33 grams of Ba(NO3)2 are required to completely react with the 5.70 grams of
CuSO4.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Step 5. Determine the amount (moles) of BaSO4 expected from the reaction.
The chemical equation states that for every 1 mole of CuSO4 used, 1 mole of BaSO4 is expected.
This means that the 0.0357 moles of CuSO4 should produce 0.0357 moles of BaSO4.
Step 6. Convert moles of BaSO4 to grams of BaSO4.
To double-check the results of the calculations, the law of the conservation of mass can be applied.
The Law of the Conservation of Mass states that the total mass, in a closed system, does not
change as the result of reactions between its parts. Theoretically, this means that the total mass of
the reactants should equal the total mass of the products. However, in practical experimentation,
a system is seldom completely closed. As a result, one should realistically expect a slightly smaller
amount of product, as the theoretical yield is rarely obtained. This deviation, from theoretical
yield to actual yield, is called the percent yield and can be calculated.
Step 7. Double-check the conservation of mass [calculate the mass of Cu(NO3)2 that is expected
from the reaction]. With a 1:1 ratio, 0.0357 moles of Cu(NO3)2 are expected.
Step 8. Calculate the theoretical yield to double-check results.
Note: Always watch significant figures during calculations, or theoretical yield of the products and
reactants may differ slightly.
Through comparing the result from the calculation in Step 8 with the previous results, one can
verify if the calculations are correct and have confidence in the series of stoichiometric calculations.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Step 9. Determine the percent yield.
Assume that the actual yield was 8.15 g BaSO4.
Using the yields both given and calculated:
Hydrates
In this experiment, you will use stoichiometry to determine the quantities necessary for a
complete precipitation reaction between aqueous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and aqueous
calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2•2H2O). A hydrate is a solid compound that contains water
molecules. Hydrates are named by adding the Greek prefixes mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa, hepta-, etc., to the end of the standard name of the compound to describe moles of water held
in the compound. For example:
CuSO4•5H2O = Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate
MgSO4•7H2O = Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
The equations above state that 1 mole of CuSO4•5H2O contains 1 mole of CuSO4 and 5 moles of
H2O; and 1 mole of MgSO4•7H2O contains 1 mole of MgSO4 and 7 moles of H2O. As the water is
loosely held in the compound, it is easily separated from the compound upon heating, or in the
case of the calcium chloride dihydrate, upon addition to water (where it will dissolve). Thus, while
the molecular weight of the CaCl2•2H2O compound includes the two water molecules, only the
CaCl2 portion of the compound is available to react with the sodium carbonate.
Assume that there were 5.0g of CaCl2•2H2O, and you needed to determine the moles of CaCl2
available in that 5.0g to react in an aqueous solution with Na2CO3. Convert the 5.0 grams of
CaCl2•2H2O to moles of CaCl2•2H2O.
Thus, in 5.0 grams of CaCl2•2H2O there are 0.034 moles of CaCl2 available to react in an aqueous
solution with Na2CO3. If the stoichiometry of the reaction was 1:1, then 0.034 moles of Na2CO3
would be required to reach stoichiometric quantities and fully react with all of the CaCl2 in solution.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Stoichiometry is used in everyday
life. Converting standard food recipes
to produce larger or smaller dishes is
one example. If 4 tablespoons of butter
and 1 egg are used to produce 12
cookies, then 8 tablespoons of butter
and 2 eggs would be needed to yield
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Exercise 1: Stoichiometry and a Precipitation
Reaction
In this exercise, you will use stoichiometry to determine the amount of reactant needed to create
the maximum amount of product in a precipitation reaction. After performing the reaction, you
will calculate the percent yield of product.
Procedure
1. Review the following reaction, where sodium carbonate and calcium chloride dihydrate react
in an aqueous solution to create calcium carbonate, a salt (sodium chloride), and water.
2. Put on your safety gloves and goggles.
3. Use the graduated cylinder to measure 25 mL of distilled water. Add 25 mL of distilled water
to each of the two 100 mL glass beakers.
4. Turn on the digital scale, place the plastic weigh boat on the scale and tare the scale so that
5. Measure 1.00 grams of the CaCl2•2H2O.
6. Carefully add the CaCl2•2H2O to one of the beakers with 25 mL of distilled water in it and swirl
the beaker until the CaCl2•2H2O is fully dissolved into the water.
7. Rinse the weigh boat with distilled water and fully dry the weigh boat with paper towels.
8. Use the information and examples provided in the background to calculate how many moles
of CaCl2•2H2O are present in 1.00 g of CaCl2•2H2O and then calculate how many moles of pure
CaCl2 are present in the 1.00 g of CaCl2•2H2O. Record the answers in Data Table 1 of your Lab
Report Assistant.
9. Use the information and examples provided in the Background (and values input into
Data Table 1, in step #6) to determine how many moles of Na2CO3 are necessary to reach
stoichiometric quantities. From that calculation, determine how many grams of Na2CO3 are
necessary to reach stoichiometric quantities. Record both values in Data Table 1.
10. Turn on the digital scale, place the plastic weigh boat on the scale and tare the scale so that
11. Measure the calculated amount of Na2CO3, and carefully add it to the 25 mL of distilled water
in the second 100 mL glass beaker.
12. Swirl the beaker until the Na2CO3 is fully dissolved into the water.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
13. Pour the Na2CO3 solution from the 100 mL glass beaker into the beaker containing the
CaCl2•2H2O solution. Swirl the beaker to fully mix the 2 solutions and the precipitate of
calcium carbonate will form instantly.
14. Use the information and examples provided in the Background to determine the maximum
(theoretical) amount of CaCO3, in grams, that can be produced from the precipitation reaction.
Record this value in Data Table 1.
15. Wash the now empty 100 mL glass beaker (that contained the Na2CO3 solution) with soap and
water. Rinse the beaker with distilled water and thoroughly dry with paper towel.
16. Place the funnel on the beaker.
17. Fold the round filter paper into a cone shape, as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Folding of filter paper.
18. Place the folded filter paper onto the tared scale and record the mass of the filter paper in
Data Table 1.
19. Place the folded filter paper into the funnel. Swirl the contents of the beaker to dislodge any
precipitate from the sides and while holding the filter paper open, slowly pour the contents
of the beaker into the filter-paper lined funnel.
Note: Be careful not to overfill the funnel. It may be necessary to gently swirl the funnel to keep the
precipitate from clogging the paper.
20. Add 2-3 mL of distilled water to the beaker and swirl the water around the sides of the beaker
to collect any precipitate stuck to the sides of the beaker. Pour into the filter-paper lined
funnel.
21. Allow all of the liquid to drain from the funnel into the beaker. This may take 10-15 minutes.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
22. After all liquid has drained from the funnel, carefully remove the filter paper from the funnel
and place it on paper towels in a warm location, such as a window that receives a lot of
sunlight, where it will not be disturbed. See Figure 4.
23. Allow the filter paper to completely dry, which will require at least an overnight drying period.
Figure 4. Filter paper with precipitate set on paper towel to dry.
24. When the filter paper with precipitate is completely dry, tare the scale and place the paper
onto the scale to obtain the mass. Record the mass of the filter paper and precipitate in Data
Table 1.
25. Calculate the actual mass of the precipitate and record in Data Table 1.
26. Calculate the percent yield of the precipitate and record in Data Table 1.
zip your file to send to your instructor. Refer to the appendix entitled “Saving Correctly,” and
the appendix entitled “Zipping Files,” for guidance with saving the Lab Report Assistant in the
correct format.
Cleanup:
28. Dispose of chemicals properly.
29. Clean all equipment and thoroughly dry.
30. Return cleaned materials to the lab kit for future use.
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Experiment
Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction
Questions
A. A perfect percent yield would be 100%. Based on your results, describe your degree of
accuracy and suggest possible sources of error.
B. What impact would adding twice as much Na2CO3 than required for stoichiometric quantities
have on the quantity of product produced?
C. Determine the quantity (g) of pure CaCl2 in 7.5 g of CaCl2•9H2O.
D. Determine the quantity (g) of pure MgSO4 in 2.4 g of MgSO4•7H2O.
E. Conservation of mass was discussed in the background. Describe how conservation of mass
(actual, not theoretical) could be checked in the experiment performed.
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