Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice
Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice
A PRACTICAL APPROACH FOURTH EDITION
Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice
A PRACTICAL APPROACH FOURTH EDITION
E D I T O R S
Virginia P. Arcangelo, PhD, NP Family Nurse Practitioner, Retired
Berlin, New Jersey
Andrew M. Peterson, PharmD, PhD, FCPP John Wyeth Dean
Professor of Clinical Pharmacy and Professor of Health Policy University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
Veronica F. Wilbur, PhD, APRN-FNP, CNE, FAANP Assistant Professor of Graduate Nursing
West Chester University West Chester, Pennsylvania
Jennifer A. Reinhold, BA, PharmD, BCPS, BCPP Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacy
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
Executive Editor: Shannon W. Magee Product Development Editor: Maria M. McAvey Developmental Editor: Tom Conville Senior Marketing Manager: Mark Wiragh Production Project Manager: Marian Bellus Design Coordinator: Elaine Kasmer Manufacturing Coordinator: Kathleen Brown Prepress Vendor: SPi Global
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Copyright © 2005 (2nd edition) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011 (3rd edition) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Arcangelo, Virginia P, editor. | Peterson, Andrew M., editor. | Wilbur, Veronica, editor. | Reinhold, Jennifer A., editor. Title: Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice : a practical approach / editors, Virginia P. Arcangelo, Andrew M. Peterson, Veronica F. Wilbur, Jennifer A. Reinhold. Description: Fourth edition. | Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer,  Identifiers: LCCN 2016002801 | ISBN 9781496319968 Subjects: | MESH: Drug Therapy—methods | Pharmaceutical Preparations—administration & dosage Classification: LCC RM262 | NLM WB 330 | DDC 615.5/8—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2016002801
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Given continuous, rapid advances in medical science and health information, independent professional verification of medical diagnoses, indications, appropriate pharmaceutical selections and dosages, and treatment options should be made and healthcare professionals should consult a variety of sources. When prescribing medication, healthcare professionals
are advised to consult the product information sheet (the manufacturer’s package insert) accompanying each drug to verify, among other things, conditions of use, warnings and side effects and identify any changes in dosage schedule or contraindications, particularly if the medication to be administered is new, infrequently used or has a narrow therapeutic range. To the maximum extent permitted under applicable law, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property, as a matter of products liability, negligence law or otherwise, or from any reference to or use by any person of this work. LWW.com
We dedicate this book to all our students. This book never would have come to fruition without
the impact of the students who have touched our lives. It is our hope that this book and its evolution into the fourth edition has influenced more than just our students but that it has
helped to promote excellence in patient care through all of its users.
Virginia P. Arcangelo, PhD, NP Family Nurse Practitioner, Retired Berlin, New Jersey
Laura Aykroyd, PharmD Clinical Pharmacy Specialist–Neurocritical Care Department of Pharmacy IU Health Methodist Hospital Indianapolis, Indiana
Kelly Barranger, MSN, RN, CRNP Certified Registered Nurse Practitioner Department of Nursing Veterans Affairs Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
John Barron, PharmD Staff Vice President and Clinical Research Advisor HealthCore, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware
Laura L. Bio, PharmD, BCPS Assistant Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice Philadelphia College of Pharmacy Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Clinical Pharmacist Department of Pharmacy Children’s Regional Hospital at Cooper University Hospital Camden, New Jersey
Lauren M. Czosnowski, PharmD, BCPS Assistant Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice Butler University Clinical Specialist Pharmacy Department IU Health Methodist Hospital Indianapolis, Indiana
Quinn A. Czosnowski, PharmD Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Pharmacy Department
IU Health Methodist Hospital Indianapolis, Indiana
David Dinh, PharmD, BCPS Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, Emergency Medicine Department of Pharmacy Yale New Haven Hospital New Haven, Connecticut
Amy M. Egras, PharmD, BCPS, BC-ADM Associate Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice Jefferson School of Pharmacy Clinical Pharmacist Jefferson Family Medicine Associates Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Kelleen N. Flaherty, MS Adjunct Assistant Professor Department of Biomedical Writing University of the Sciences in Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Maria C. Foy, PharmD, BCPS, CPE Clinical Specialist, Palliative Care Pharmacy Department Abington Memorial Hospital Abington, Pennsylvania
Steven P. Gelone, PharmD Chief Development Officer Nabriva Therapeutics King of Prussia, Pennsylvania
Andrew J. Grimone, PharmD, BCPS-AQ ID Assistant Professor Department of Nursing Clarion University of Pennsylvania Clarion, Pennsylvania Clinical Pharmacy Manager Department of Pharmacy Saint Vincent Hospital Allegheny Health Network Erie, Pennsylvania
Anisha B. Grover, PharmD, BCACP Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy University of the Sciences Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Diane E. Hadley, PharmD, BCACP Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration University of the Sciences Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Emily R. Hajjar, PharmD, BCPS, BCACP, CGP Associate Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice Jefferson School of Pharmacy Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Amalia M. Issa, PhD, MPH, FCPP Professor of Health Policy Department of Health Policy and Public Health Director Program in Personalized Medicine and Targeted Therapeutics University of the Sciences Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Tep Kang, PharmD, BCPS Adjunct Instructor Department of Nursing University of Delaware Newark, Delaware Wilmington University New Castle, Delaware Critical Care Pharmacist Department of Pharmacy Christiana Care Health Services Newark, Delaware
Alice Lim, PharmD, BCACP Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration Philadelphia College of Pharmacy Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Laura A. Mandos, BS, PharmD, BCPP Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration Philadelphia College of Pharmacy University of the Sciences Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Lauren K. McCluggage, PharmD Associate Professor Lipscomb University College of Pharmacy Clinical Pharmacist Department of Pharmacy St. Thomas West Hospital Nashville, Tennessee
Karleen Melody, PharmD, BCACP Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration Philadelphia College of Pharmacy University of the Sciences Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Isabelle Mercier, PhD Associate Professor Pharmaceutical Sciences University of the Sciences Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Carol Gullo Mest, PhD, RN, ANP-BC Professor of Nursing Director of Graduate Program DeSales University Center Valley, Pennsylvania
Samir K. Mistry, PharmD Senior Director Specialty Product Strategy CVS Health Minneapolis, Minnesota
Lorraine Nowakowski-Grier, MSN, APRN, BC, CDE Adjunct Faculty Department of Nursing College of Health Professions Wilmington University New Castle, Delaware Nurse Practitioner, Diabetes Educator Department of Nursing Education and Development Christiana Care Health Services Newark, Delaware
Judith A. O’Donnell, MD Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases
Hospital Epidemiologist and Director, Infection Prevention & Control Penn Presbyterian Medical Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Staci Pacetti, PharmD Assistant Professor Department of Nursing Rutgers University School of Nursing Camden, New Jersey
Andrew M. Peterson, PharmD, PhD, FCPP John Wyeth Dean Professor of Clinical Pharmacy and Professor of Health Policy University of the Sciences in Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Louis R. Petrone, MD Clinical Assistant Professor Family and Community Medicine Sidney Kimmel Medical College Attending Physician Family and Community Medicine Thomas Jefferson University Hospital Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Melody D. Randle, DNP, FNP-C, MSN, CCNS, CNE Chair Nurse Practitioner Program College of Health Professions Wilmington University New Castle, Delaware
Troy L. Randle, DO, FACC, FACOI Assistant Program Director of Cardiology Department of Cardiology School of Osteopathic Medicine Rowan University Cardiologist Lourdes Cardiology Cherry Hill, New Jersey
Jennifer A. Reinhold, BA, PharmD, BCPS, BCPP Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Philadelphia College of Pharmacy University of the Sciences in Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Christopher C. Roe, MSN, ACNP-BC Nurse Practitioner Manager
Center for Heart and Vascular Health Christiana Care Health Systems Newark, Delaware
Cynthia A. Sanoski, PharmD, BCPS, FCCP Department Chair and Associate Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice Jefferson School of Pharmacy Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Briana L. Santaniello, MBA, PharmD PGY1 Managed Care Pharmacy Resident University of Massachusetts Medical School’s Clinical Pharmacy Services Shrewsbury, Massachusetts
Jason J. Schafer, PharmD, MPH Associate Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice Jefferson School of Pharmacy Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Shelly Schneider, APN Nurse Practitioner Woodbury Dermatology Woodbury, New Jersey
Jean M. Scholtz, BS, PharmD, BCPS, FASHP Associate Professor, Vice Chair Department of Pharmacy Practice Philadelphia College of Pharmacy Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Anita Siu, PharmD Clinical Associate Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Piscataway, New Jersey Neonatal/Pediatric Pharmacotherapy Specialist Department of Pharmacy Jersey Shore University Medical Center Neptune, New Jersey
Sarah A. Spinler, PharmD Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration Philadelphia College of Pharmacy University of the Sciences
Joshua J. Spooner, PharmD, MS Associate Professor of Pharmacy College of Pharmacy Western New England University Springfield, Massachusetts
Linda M. Spooner, PharmD, BCPS, FASHP Professor of Pharmacy Practice Department of Pharmacy Practice MCPHS University School of Pharmacy–Worcester/Manchester Clinical Pharmacy Specialist in Infectious Diseases Saint Vincent Hospital Worcester, Massachusetts
Richard G. Stefanacci, DO, MGH, MBA, AGSF, CMD Faculty School of Population Health Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Chief Medical Officer The Access Group Berkeley Heights, New Jersey Senior Physician Mercy LIFE Trinity Health System Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
James C. Thigpen Jr, PharmD, BCPS Associate Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy East Tennessee State University Johnson City, Tennessee
Tyan F. Thomas, PharmD Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration Philadelphia College of Pharmacy at the University of the Sciences Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Department of Pharmacy Philadelphia VA Medical Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Karen J Tietze. , PharmD Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Philadelphia College of Pharmacy University of the Sciences in Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Elena M. Umland, PharmD Associate Dean, Academic Affairs Professor, Pharmacy Practice Jefferson School of Pharmacy Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Sarah F. Uroza, PharmD Assistant Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice Lipscomb University Clinical Pharmacist Faith Family Medical Clinic Nashville, Tennessee
Craig B. Whitman, PharmD, BCPSClinical Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice Temple University School of Pharmacy Clinical Specialist, Critical Care Temple University Hospital Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Veronica F. Wilbur, PhD, APRN-FNP, CNE, FAANP Assistant Professor of Graduate Nursing West Chester University West Chester, Pennsylvania
Vincent J. Willey, PharmD Staff Vice President, Industry Sponsored Research HealthCore, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware
Eric T. Wittbrodt, PharmD, MPH Director, Health Economics and Outcomes Research at AstraZeneca
PREVIOUS EDITION CONTRIBUTORS
Angela A. Allerman, PharmD, BCPS
Kelly Barranger, MSN, RN, CRNP
John Barron, BS Pharmacy, PharmD
Laura L. Bio, PharmD, BCPS
Tim A. Briscoe, PharmD, CDE
Debra Carroll, MSN, CRNP
Quinn A. Czosnowski, PharmD, BCPS
Lauren M. Czosnowski, PharmD, BCPS
Elyse L. Dishler, MD
Amy M. Egras, PharmD, BCPS
Heather E. Fean, MSN, APN-C
Kelleen N. Flaherty, MS
Maria C. Foy, PharmD, CPE
Stephanie A. Gaber, PharmD, CDE
Jomy M. George, PharmD, BCPS
Ellen Boxer Goldfarb, CRNP
Andrew J. Grimone, PharmD, RPh, BCPS
Emily R. Hajjar, PharmD, BCPS, CGP
Andrea M. Heise, MSN, APN-C
Lauren K. McCluggage, PharmD, BCPS
Carol Gullo Mest, PhD, RN, ANP-BC
Samir K. Mistry, PharmD
Angela Cafiero Moroney, PharmD
Betty E. Naimoli, MSN, CRNP
Jessica O’Hara, PharmD
Dharmi Patel, PharmD
Jeegisha R. Patel, PharmD
Louis R. Petrone, MD
Jennifer A. Reinhold, BA, PharmD, BCPS
Alicia M. Reese, PharmD, MS, BCPS
Cynthia A. Sanoski, BS, PharmD, BCPS, FCCP
Matthew Sarnes, PharmD
Jason J. Schafer, PharmD, BCPS, AAHIVE
Susan M. Schrand, MSN, CRNP
Henry M. Schwartz, BSc Pharm, PharmD, CDE
Anita Siu, PharmD
Joshua J. Spooner, PharmD, MS
Linda M. Spooner, PharmD, BCPS
Liza Takiya, PharmD, BCPS
Jim Thigpen, PharmD, BCPS
Tyan F. Thomas, PharmD, BCPS
Craig B. Whitman, PharmD, BCPS
Veronica F. Wilbur, PhD, FNP-BC
Eric T. Wittbrodt, PharmD
Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice originated from our combined experience in teaching nurse practitioners and in practice in primary care. As a nurse practitioner and educator herself, Virginia saw a need for practical exposure to the general principles of prescribing and monitoring drug therapy, particularly in the Family Practice arena. As a PharmD, Andrew saw a need to be able to teach new prescribers how to think about prescribing systematically, regardless of the disease state. For this edition, we have expanded the editorial staff to include Veronica F. Wilbur and Jennifer Reinhold. Veronica, a Family Nurse Practitioner and PhD in Nursing, has extensive experience in education of Advanced Practice Nurses and primary care practice. Jennifer, a PharmD, has expertise in pharmacotherapy and prescribing in primary care. Both of these colleagues were contributors in previous editions and understand the focus, intent, and direction of this text.
This edition still provides basic pharmacology, while also providing a process and framework through which learners can begin to think pharmacotherapeutically. The text still allows learners to identify a disease, review the drugs used to treat the disease, select treatment based on goals of therapy and special patient considerations, and adjust therapy if it fails to meet goals.
This text meets the needs of both students and practitioners in a practical approach that is user friendly. It teaches the practitioner how to prescribe and manage drug therapy in primary care. The book has evolved over the years, based on input from students, academicians, and practitioners. Long-standing contributors were asked to update their chapters, and new contributors were selected based on their academic or practice expertise to provide a combination of evidence-based medicine and practical experience. The text considers disease- and patient-specific information. With each chapter, there are tables and evidence-based algorithms that are practical and easy to read and that complement the text.
Additionally, the text guides the practitioner to a choice of second- and third-line therapy when the first line of therapy fails. Since new drugs are being marketed continually, drug classes are discussed with a focus on how the broader, class-specific properties can be applied to new drugs. Each chapter ends with a simple case study or series of questions designed to prompt the learner to think systematically and the teacher to ask critical questions. Also, the disorder chapter’s case study asks the same questions; reinforcing a clinical decision-making process and promoting critical thinking skills. There are no answers to the questions in the text since the authors believe that the purpose of the case studies is to promote discussion and that there may be more than one correct answer to each question, especially as new drugs are developed. However, one potential answer to each question in the case is available online for use by faculty. Additionally, there is an
additional case with several sample multiple-choice questions for each chapter online. We realize that there may be several answers to these questions and the authors have just provided one option. To assist faculty in the classroom, there are power point slides available online for each chapter. To assist the student, the acronyms contained in each chapter are defined in a separate file online as well.
ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
Unit 1—Principles of Therapeutics As with previous editions, the Principles Unit of the book reviews basic elements of therapeutics necessary for safe and effective prescribing. The first chapter introduces the prescribing process, including how to avoid medication errors. The next two chapters provide the foundation of therapeutics, including information on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs and drug–drug/drug–food interactions. The following three chapters review how these foundations change in pediatric, pregnant, and geriatric patients. Similarly, the basics of the principles of pain management and infectious disease therapy are reviewed in the next two chapters so that the reader can learn how these concepts are applied to the disorders discussed in the following units. Updated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and Pharmacogenomics chapters are included in this unit, recognizing the growing use of these modalities in all aspects of patient care.
Units 2 through 12—Disorders This section of the book, consisting of 41 chapters, reviews commonly seen disorders in the primary care setting. Although not all-inclusive, the array of disorders allows the reader to gain an understanding of how to approach the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of any disorder. The chapters are designed to give a brief overview of the disease process, including the causes and pathophysiology, with an emphasis placed on how drug therapy can alter the pathologic state. Diagnostic Criteria and Goals of Therapy are discussed and underlie the basic principles of treating patients with drugs. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have been split and each has a chapter devoted to it. A new chapter on Parkinson Disease has been added since this is frequently treated in primary care. Each chapter has been updated with the newest therapies available at the time of writing.
The drug sections review the agents’ uses, mechanism of action, contraindications and drug interactions, adverse effects, and monitoring parameters. This discussion is organized primarily by drug class, with notation to specific drugs within the text and the tables. The tables provide the reader with quick access to generic and trade names and dosages, adverse events, contraindications, and special considerations. Used together, the text and tables provide the reader with sufficient information to begin to choose drug therapy.
The section on Selecting the Most Appropriate Agent aids the reader in deciding which drug to choose for a given patient. This section contains information on first-line, second-line, and third-line therapies, with rationales for why drugs are classified in these categories. Accompanying this section is an algorithm outlining the thought process by which clinicians select an initial drug therapy. Again, the text organization and the illustrative algorithms provide readers with a means of thinking through the process of
selecting drugs for patients. In the third edition, we have kept the Recommended Order of Treatment tables and updated them, along with the algorithms and drug tables, to reflect current knowledge. Each chapter has been updated to reflect the most current guidelines available at the time of writing. However, medicine and pharmacotherapy are constantly changing, and it remains the clinician’s responsibility to identify the most current information.
Included in each chapter is a section on Monitoring Patient Response. This encompasses clinical and laboratory parameters, times when these items should be monitored, and actions to take in case the parameters do not meet the specified goals of therapy. In addition, special patient populations are discussed when appropriate. These discussions include pediatric and geriatric patients but may also include ethnic- or sex- related considerations. Last, this section includes a discussion of patient education material relevant to the disease and drugs chosen. In each chapter, there is a patient education section that includes information on CAM related to that disorder as well as sections on external information for patients and practitioners.
Each of the case studies has been reviewed and updated as appropriate. However, the pedagogical style of reasoning remains the same. As previously stated, answers to these case studies are not supplied since the purpose is to promote discussion and evoke a thought process. Also, as time changes, so do therapies. The cases are short, compelling the learner to ask questions about the patient and allowing flexibility for multiple correct answers to be developed by the instructor as they work through the clinical decision-making process.
Units 13 and 14—Pharmacotherapy in Health Promotion and Women’s Health These units discuss several areas of interest for promoting health or maintaining a healthy lifestyle using medications, including smoking cessation, immunizations, and weight management; the chapter on travel medicine has been eliminated since there are specialty clinics that provide this service, and it is not done frequently in primary care. The four chapters in Women’s Health assist the learner to recognize the special nature of care that this population deserves.
Unit 15—Integrative Approach to Patient Care While there are only two chapters in this unit, they represent the culmination of the text. Practitioners need to have an understanding of the economics of pharmacotherapeutics in order to effectively prescribe medications and treat patients. This chapter is updated with information on the Affordable Care Act and its impact on therapeutic decision making while still being anchored in the basics of pharmacoeconomics, formulary decision making, co-pays, prior authorizations, and Medicare as well as managed care as it applies to prescribing medications.
The last chapter, Integrative Approaches to Pharmacotherapy, is an attempt to examine
real-life, complex cases. Each case addresses the nine questions posed in the individual chapter case studies, but now provides the reader with examples of how to approach the case studies and examines issues to consider when presented with more than one diagnosis. These cases are more complex, requiring the reader to think through multiple diseases and therapies instead of a single disorder in isolation. Within this chapter, we do offer potential answers to the cases. These may not be the only answers but indicate some of the thought processes that go into the decision-making process in the pharmacologic management of a problem.
Chapter Organization This edition continues the consistent format approach throughout each disorder chapter. Each chapter begins with the background and pathophysiology of the disorder, followed by a discussion of the relevant classes of drugs. These broad categories are then integrated in the section on Selecting the Most Appropriate Agent.
Drug Overview Tables are also organized consistently, giving the reader much information on each drug, including the usual dose, contraindications and side effects, and any special considerations a prescriber should be aware of during therapy. Algorithms provide the reader with a visual cue on how to approach treating a patient.
Recommended Order of Treatment tables provide the reader with basic drug therapy selection, from first-line to third-line therapies for each disorder. These, coupled with the algorithms and the drug tables, are the core of the text.
A Case Study is provided for each disorder discussed. These short cases are designed to stimulate discussion among students and with instructors. The nine questions at the end of each case are tailored to each disorder but remain similar across all cases to reinforce the process of thinking pharmacotherapeutically.
Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice continues to provide primary care students with a reasoned approach to learning pharmacotherapeutics and to serve as a reference for the seasoned practitioner. Prescribing is becoming more and more complex, and the information in this book has helped us in our own practices. As experienced educators and practitioners, we are dedicated to providing you with a textbook that will meet your needs.
Virginia P. Arcangelo Andrew M. Peterson Veronica F. Wilbur
Jennifer A. Reinhold
We would like to thank Shannon Magee, Maria McAvey, and Marian Bellus, from Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and Tom Conville, Development Editor, for all their invaluable assistance. We are also forever indebted to the contributors who spent countless hours on this project. Without them, this would never have become a reality.
In addition, we would like to thank our families who supported us throughout the project and understand the importance of this book to us.
Contributors Previous Edition Contributors Preface Acknowledgments
UNIT 1 Principles of Therapeutics 1 Issues for the Practitioner in Drug Therapy
Virginia P. Arcangelo & Veronica F. Wilbur
2 Pharmacokinetic Basis of Therapeutics and Pharmacodynamic Principles Andrew M. Peterson
3 Impact of Drug Interactions and Adverse Events on Therapeutics Tep Kang & Andrew M. Peterson
4 Principles of Pharmacotherapy in Pediatrics Anita Siu & James C. Thigpen Jr
5 Principles of Pharmacotherapy in Pregnancy and Lactation Andrew M. Peterson & Lauren M. Czosnowski
6 Pharmacotherapy Principles in Older Adults Richard G. Stefanacci
7 Principles of Pharmacology in Pain Management Maria C. Foy
8 Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy Steven P. Gelone, Staci Pacetti, & Judith A. O’Donnell
9 Complementary and Alternative Medicine Virginia P. Arcangelo
10 Pharmacogenomics Isabelle Mercier, Andrew M. Peterson, & Amalia M. Issa
UNIT 2 Pharmacotherapy for Skin Disorders 11 Contact Dermatitis
Virginia P. Arcangelo
12 Fungal Infections of the Skin
Virginia P. Arcangelo
13 Viral Infections of the Skin Virginia P. Arcangelo
14 Bacterial Infections of the Skin Jason J. Schafer & Maria C. Foy
15 Psoriasis Shelly Schneider
16 Acne Vulgaris and Rosacea Virginia P. Arcangelo
UNIT 3 Pharmacotherapy for Eye and Ear Disorders 17 Ophthalmic …Read more