For this journal, first read Chapter 8, Works Credited in the Text, from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and review the following sample article: Positive and Negative Perfectionism and the Big Five Personality Factors. You will use this sample article to identify the important elements of a literature review.
Next, based on your understanding of the article, answer the following questions that pertain to essential literature review elements:
· What is the title of the article? Provide a citation for the article in APA format.
· What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?
· What is the hypothesis of the study? In other words, what claims do the authors make in the article?
· What variables (factors) are being looked at as an influence on personality? How are these factors assessed or measured in the article?
· If these variables or the relationship between these variables have been studied before, what have other studies found? This shows historical significance. How does the view of personality in this article compare with historical views of personality?
· What type of research design is used in the study? What instruments or measures did the researchers use to collect data?
· Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or why not? In relation to the article, how have ethical considerations in personality psychology research changed over the years?
Each question requires a response of 1–3 sentences, although you can write more if needed. Be sure to cite directly from the sample article to support your answers.
For additional details, refer to the Module Two Journal Guidelines Rubric document.
8 WORKS CREDITED IN THE TEXT Scientific knowledge represents the accomplishments of many researchers over time. A critical part of writing in APA Style is helping readers place your contribution in context by citing the researchers who influenced you. In this chapter, we provide the ground rules for acknowledging how others contributed to your work. General guidance for in-text citation is presented first, including how to provide an appropriate level of citation and avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism in your writing. Specific guidance for in-text citation follows, including formats for interviews, classroom and intranet sources, and personal communications; in-text citations in general; and paraphrases and direct quotations. General Guidelines for Citation 8.1 Appropriate Level of Citation Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. The works you cite provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Cite only works that you have read and ideas that you have incorporated into your writing. Cite primary sources when possible and secondary sources sparingly (see Section 8.6). In addition to crediting the ideas of others that you used to develop your thesis, provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge. Both paraphrases (see Sections 8.23–8.24) and direct quotations (see Sections 8.25–8.35) require citations. If you reprint or adapt a table or figure (e.g., if you reproduce an image from the internet, even if it was free or in the Creative Commons) or reprint a long quotation or commercially copyrighted test item, you may also need to seek permission from the copyright holder and provide a copyright attribution (see Sections 12.14–12.18). The number of sources you cite in your paper depends on the purpose of your work. For most papers, cite one or two of the most representative sources for each key point. Literature review papers, however, typically include a more exhaustive list of references, given that the purpose of the paper is to acquaint readers with everything that has been written on the topic. Avoid both undercitation and overcitation. Undercitation can lead to plagiarism (see Section 8.2) and/or self-plagiarism (see Section 8.3). Even when sources cannot be retrieved (e.g., because they are personal communications; see Section 8.9), you still need to credit them in the text (however, avoid using online sources that are no longer recoverable; see Section 9.37). Overcitation can be distracting and is unnecessary. For example, it is considered overcitation to repeat the same citation in every sentence when the source and topic have not changed. Instead, when paraphrasing a key point in more than one sentence within a paragraph, cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the source remains clear and unchanged (see Section 8.24). When the author’s name appears in the narrative, the year can be omitted in repeated citations under certain circumstances (see Section 8.16). Figure 8.1 provides an example of an appropriate level of citation. Figure 8.1 Example of an Appropriate Level of Citation Note. The authors have provided citations to representative sources for each new idea in the text. Common knowledge (here, the idea that some people come up with funny ideas more easily than do others) does not require a citation. Full Description. 8.2 Plagiarism Plagiarism is the act of presenting the words, ideas, or images of another as your own; it denies authors or creators of content the credit they are due. Whether deliberate or unintentional, plagiarism violates ethical standards in scholarship (see APA Ethics Code Standard 8.11, Plagiarism). Writers who plagiarize disrespect the efforts of original authors by failing to acknowledge their contributions, stifle further research by preventing readers from tracing ideas back to their original sources, and unfairly disregard those who exerted the effort to complete their own work. Writers who try to publish plagiarized work face rejection from publication and possible censure in their place of employment. Students who plagiarize may fail the assignment or course, be placed on academic probation, or be expelled from their institution (see also Section 1.17). To avoid plagiarism, provide appropriate credit to the source whenever you do the following: paraphrase (i.e., state in your own words) the ideas of others (see Sections 8.23–8.24) directly quote the words of others (see Sections 8.25–8.35) refer to data or data sets (see Section 10.9) reprint or adapt a table or figure, even images from the internet that are free or licensed in the Creative Commons (see Sections 12.14–12.18) reprint a long text passage or commercially copyrighted test item (see Sections 12.14–12.18) For most works, appropriate credit takes the form of an author–date citation (see Section 8.10). However, according to U.S. copyright law, authors who wish to reprint or adapt tables, figures, and images or to reprint long quotations or commercially copyrighted test items (see Section 12.15) must provide more comprehensive credit in the form of a copyright attribution (see Section 12.18) and may need permission from the copyright holder to use the materials (see Section 12.17). The necessity for credit extends to the ideas of others as well. For example, authors should credit the originators of theories they refer to in their paper. If authors model a study after one conducted by someone else, the author of the original study should be given credit. If the rationale for a study was suggested in someone else’s article, that person should be given credit. Given the free exchange of ideas, which is important to the health of intellectual discourse, authors may not be able to pinpoint exactly where the idea for their study originated. They should make their best effort to find and acknowledge the source(s), including any personal communications (see Section 8.9). Although many cases of plagiarism are straightforward (e.g., passages of text copied from another source without attribution), other cases are more challenging to evaluate. Usually, using incorrect citations (e.g., misspelling an author’s name, forgetting or mistyping an element in a reference list entry, or citing a source in the text that does not have a corresponding reference list entry) is not considered plagiarism if the error is minor and attributable to an editorial oversight rather than an intentional attempt to steal someone’s ideas or obfuscate the origin of the information (Cooper, 2016). However, such errors may still result in deductions on an academic assignment or a request for revision of a manuscript submitted for publication. Publishers and educators may use plagiarism-checking software (e.g., iThenticate, Turnitin) to identify cases in which entire papers have been copied, passages of specified lengths match, or a few words have been changed but content is largely the same (the latter is known as patchwriting; see Merriam-Webster, n.d.-a). However, human review is often necessary to determine whether plagiarism has actually taken place. Take careful notes as you research and write to keep track of and accurately cite your sources. Check your work carefully to ensure that you acknowledge the words and ideas of others with citations in the text that have corresponding reference list entries. Unethical writing practices other than plagiarism are also prohibited. For example, it is unethical to fabricate citations and/or reference list entries. This practice gives the appearance of properly credited sources, but the sources are fictitious or untraceable; the author may have made up the information as well as the sources, or the information may come from real works that have not been credited. Likewise, contract cheating, in which students hire another person to write a paper for them, is unethical. Even when the resulting work is original (i.e., not plagiarized), these students still take credit for work that they did not do themselves, which violates academic integrity policies, honor codes, and ethics codes. 8.3 Self-Plagiarism Self-plagiarism is the presentation of your own previously published work as original; like plagiarism, self-plagiarism is unethical. Self-plagiarism deceives readers by making it appear that more information is available on a topic than really exists. It gives the impression that findings are more replicable than is the case or that particular conclusions are more strongly supported than is warranted by the evidence. It may lead to copyright violations if you publish the same work with multiple publishers (sometimes called duplicate publication; see Section 1.16). Some institutions may consider it self-plagiarism if a student submits a paper written for one class to complete an assignment for another class without permission from the current instructor; using the same paper in multiple classes may violate the academic integrity policy, honor code, or ethics code of the university. However, incorporating previous classwork into one’s thesis or dissertation and building on one’s own existing writing may be permissible; students who wish to do this should discuss their ideas with their instructor or advisor and follow their university’s honor code, ethics code, or academic policies when reusing their previous work. In specific circumstances, authors may wish to duplicate their previously used words without quotation marks or citation (e.g., in describing the details of an instrument or an analytic approach), feeling that extensive self-referencing is undesirable or awkward and that rewording may lead to inaccuracies. When the duplicated material is limited in scope, this approach is permissible. When the duplication is more extensive, authors should cite the source of the duplicated material. What constitutes the maximum acceptable length of duplicated material is difficult to define but must conform to legal notions of fair use (see Section 12.17). General guidelines for using an acceptable amount of duplicated material are as follows: Ensure that the core of the new document constitutes an original contribution to knowledge in that only the amount of previously published material necessary to understand that contribution is included and the material appears primarily in the discussion of theory and methodology. Place all duplicated material in a single paragraph or a few paragraphs, when feasible, with a citation at the beginning or end of each paragraph. Introduce the duplicated material with a phrase such as “as I have previously discussed.” Do not use quotation marks or block quotation formatting around your own duplicated material. When you reanalyze your own previously published data, such as in a large-scale, longitudinal, or multidisciplinary project, provide sufficient information about the project so that readers can evaluate the current report but do not repeat every detail of the design and method. Find a balance that involves referring readers to the earlier work using citations. If a manuscript will receive masked review (see Section 12.7), you may need to conceal references to your previous work until the manuscript is ready for publication. To conceal your previous work, omit the relevant entries from the reference list and indicate in the text where citations will be reinstated after the review process by including “citation omitted,” or similar, in parentheses. An exception to the prohibition against self-plagiarism is publishing a work of limited circulation in a venue of wider circulation. For example, authors may publish their doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in whole or in part in one or more journal articles. In such cases, authors would not cite their dissertation or thesis in the article text but rather acknowledge in the author note that the work was based on their dissertation or thesis (see Section 2.7). Similarly, an article based on research the authors described in an abstract published in a conference program or proceeding does not usually constitute duplicate publication; the author should acknowledge previous presentation of the research in the article’s author note (see the author note of the sample professional paper in Chapter 2 as an example). Seek clarification from the journal editor or course instructor if you are concerned about duplicate publication or self-plagiarism. 8.4 Correspondence Between Reference List and Text APA Style uses the author–date citation system (see Section 8.10), in which a brief in-text citation directs readers to a full reference list entry. Each work cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text. Ensure that the spelling of author names and the publication dates in the reference list entries match those in the in-text citations. The date element of a reference list entry may include the month, season, and/or day in addition to the year; however, the corresponding in-text citation includes only the year (see, e.g., Example 15 in Chapter 10). There are a few exceptions to these guidelines: Personal communications, which are unrecoverable sources, are cited in the text only (see Section 8.9). General mentions of whole websites or periodicals (see Section 8.22) and common software and apps (see Section 10.10) in the text do not require a citation or reference list entry. The source of an epigraph does not usually appear in the reference list (see Section 8.35). Quotations from your research participants can be presented and discussed in the text but do not need citations or reference list entries (see Section 8.36). References included in a meta-analysis, which are marked with an asterisk in the reference list, may be cited in the text (or not) at the author’s discretion (see Section 9.52). 8.5 Use of the Published Version or Archival Version Multiple versions of the same work might coexist on the internet, and you should cite the version of the work you used. Ideally, use and cite the final, published version of a work (see Chapter 10, Examples 1–3). However, if you used the advance online version (see Chapter 10, Example 7), the in-press version (see Chapter 10, Example 8), or the final peer-reviewed manuscript accepted for publication (but before it was typeset or copyedited; see Chapter 10, Example 73), cite that version. The final peer-reviewed manuscript as accepted for publication might be available from a variety of places, including a personal website, an employer’s server, an institutional repository, a reference manager, or an author social network. Informally published works, such as those in a preprint archive (e.g., PsyArXiv) or an institutional repository or database (e.g., ERIC), can also be cited (see Chapter 10, Examples 73–74) when these are the version used. Draft manuscripts (unpublished, in preparation, or submitted) can be cited when the draft is the most current version of the work (see Chapter 10, Examples 70–72). When you cite a draft manuscript, in-press article, advance online publication, or informally published work in your paper, ensure you have the most up-to-date publication information for these works and update the reference list entry if necessary before you submit your paper. Publishers label advance online publications in various ways (e.g., “online first publication,” “advance online publication,” “epub ahead of print”); standardize this label to “advance online publication” for an APA Style reference list entry (see Chapter 10, Example 7). 8.6 Primary and Secondary Sources In scholarly work, a primary source reports original content; a secondary source refers to content first reported in another source. Cite secondary sources sparingly—for instance, when the original work is out of print, unavailable, or available only in a language that you do not understand. If possible, as a matter of good scholarly practice, find the primary source, read it, and cite it directly rather than citing a secondary source. For example, rather than citing an instructor’s lecture or a textbook or encyclopedia that in turn cites original research, find, read, and cite the original research directly (unless an instructor has directed you to do otherwise). When citing a secondary source, provide a reference list entry for the secondary source that you used. In the text, identify the primary source and then write “as cited in” the secondary source that you used. If the year of publication of the primary source is known, also include it in the text. For example, if you read a work by Lyon et al. (2014) in which Rabbitt (1982) was cited, and you were unable to read Rabbitt’s work yourself, cite Rabbitt’s work as the original source, followed by Lyon et al.’s work as the secondary source. Only Lyon et al.’s work appears in the reference list. (Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014) If the year of the primary source is unknown, omit it from the in-text citation. Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003) Works Requiring Special Approaches to Citation 8.7 Interviews An interview is a dialogue or an exchange of information between people. Interviews used as sources can be classified into three categories: published interviews, personal interviews, and research participant interviews. Published interviews appear in a variety of places—for example, in a magazine, newspaper, recorded radio broadcast, podcast episode, YouTube video, TV show, or transcript of a video or audio recording. To cite a published interview, follow the format for the reference type (e.g., magazine article, podcast episode, radio broadcast; see Chapter 10, Examples 15 and 95, for interviews published in a magazine article and a digital archive, respectively). The person being interviewed will not necessarily appear in the author element of the reference; when this is the case, integrate the person’s name into the narrative of the sentence if desired (see Chapter 10, Example 88). Personal interviews are those you conduct as a means of obtaining information to support a key point in your paper (e.g., an email to an author inquiring about their published work). Because readers cannot recover this type of interview, cite it as a personal communication (see Section 8.9). Research participant interviews are those you conducted as part of your methodology. They do not require a citation in APA Style because you do not cite your own work in the paper in which it is being first reported. However, information gathered from research participant interviews can be presented and discussed in a paper according to the guidelines in Section 8.36. 8.8 Classroom or Intranet Resources Some works are recoverable only by certain audiences, which determines how they are cited. For example, a student writing a paper for a course assignment might cite works from the classroom website or learning management system (LMS; e.g., Canvas, Blackboard, Brightspace, Moodle, Sakai), or an employee might cite resources from the company intranet when writing an internal company report. These sources are recoverable by the instructor and fellow students or by other employees of the company but not the general public. When the audience you are writing for can retrieve the works you used, cite the works using the formats shown in Chapter 10, which are organized according to reference group and category. For example, to cite a recorded lecture or PowerPoint presentation available from a classroom website or LMS for a student assignment, follow the format shown in Chapter 10, Example 102. The source element of these references includes the name of the classroom website or LMS and the URL (which for sites requiring users to log in should be the home page or login page URL). Likewise, for a report on a company intranet, follow the report formats shown in Section 10.4. However, if the work is for professional publication or intended for a wider audience who will not have access to these sources, cite the sources as personal communications (see Section 8.9). 8.9 Personal Communications Works that cannot be recovered by readers (i.e., works without a source element; see Section 9.4) are cited in the text as personal communications. Personal communications include emails, text messages, online chats or direct messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures, memos, letters, messages from nonarchived discussion groups or online bulletin boards, and so on. Use a personal communication citation only when a recoverable source is not available. For example, if you learned about a topic via a classroom lecture, it would be preferable to cite the research on which the instructor based the lecture. However, if the lecture contained original content not published elsewhere, cite the lecture as a personal communication. When communications are recoverable only in an archive (e.g., a presidential library), cite them as archival materials (see the APA Style website at https://apastyle.apa.org for more). Do not use a personal communication citation for quotes or information from participants whom you interviewed as part of your own original research (see Section 8.36). Citing Personal Communications in the Text. Because readers cannot retrieve the information in personal communications, personal communications are not included in the reference list; they are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible, using the following formats: Narrative citation: E.-M. Paradis (personal communication, August 8, 2019) Parenthetical citation: (T. Nguyen, personal communication, February 24, 2020) Citing Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples. The manner of citing Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions (other terms are “Traditional Stories” and “Oral Histories”) of Indigenous Peoples varies depending on whether and how the information has been recorded—only certain cases use a variation of the personal communication citation. If the information has been recorded and is recoverable by readers (e.g., video, audio, interview transcript, book, article), cite it in the text and include a reference list entry in the correct format for that type of source (see Section 10.12, Example 90, for a recording on YouTube; see Section 10.13, Example 95, for a recorded interview). Examine published works carefully (especially older works) to ensure that the information about Indigenous Peoples is accurate and appropriate to share before citing those works. Likewise, work closely with Indigenous people to ensure that material is appropriate to publish (e.g., some stories are told only at certain times of year or by certain people and may not be appropriate to publish in a journal article) and that your wording accurately mirrors and maintains the integrity of their perspectives (see Younging, 2018, for more on the nature of collaboration with Indigenous people). Likewise, because Indigenous cultural heritage belongs to Indigenous Peoples in perpetuity, matters concerning copyright and authorship may arise depending on the scope and nature of the material being presented (see Younging, 2018, for more). Capitalize most terms related to Indigenous Peoples. These include names of specific groups (e.g., Cherokee, Cree, Ojibwe) and words related to Indigenous culture (e.g., Creation, the Creator, Elder, Oral Tradition, Traditional Knowledge, Vision Quest). The capitalization is intentional and demonstrates respect for Indigenous perspectives (for more, see International Journal of Indigenous Health, n.d.; Younging, 2018). To describe Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions that are not recorded (and therefore are not recoverable by readers), provide as much detail in the in-text citation as is necessary to describe the content and to contextualize the origin of the information. Because there is no recoverable source, a reference list entry is not used. If the purpose of your paper is to present the Oral History of one or more of your research participants, follow the guidelines in Section 8.36 for including quotations from research participants. If the paper is published, this Oral History then becomes part of the recorded scholarly literature and can thus be cited by others using standard formats. If you spoke with an Indigenous person directly to learn information (but they were not a research participant), use a variation of the personal communication citation: Provide the person’s full name and the nation or specific Indigenous group to which they belong, as well as their location or other details about them as relevant, followed by the words “personal communication,” and the date of the communication. Provide an exact date of correspondence if available; if correspondence took place over a period of time, provide a more general date or a range of dates. (The date refers to when you consulted with the person, not to when the information originated.) Ensure that the person agrees to have their name included in your paper and confirms the accuracy and appropriateness of the information you present. We spoke with Anna Grant (Haida Nation, lives in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, personal communication, April 2019) about traditional understandings of the world by First Nations Peoples in Canada. She described . . . If you are an Indigenous person and are sharing your own experiences or the previously unrecorded Traditional Knowledge or Oral Tradition of your people, describe yourself in the text (e.g., what nation you belong to, where you live) to contextualize the origin of the information you are sharing. Do not use a personal communication citation or provide a reference list entry because you do not need to cite personal information. It is often useful to collaborate with other Indigenous people to address any questions that may arise. For more on the terms to use when describing Indigenous Peoples, see Section 5.7. In-Text Citations 8.10 Author–Date Citation System Use the author–date citation system to cite references in the text in APA Style. In this system, each work used in a paper has two parts: an in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry (see Figure 8.2). The in-text citation appears within the body of the paper (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix) and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication. This in-text citation enables readers to locate the corresponding entry in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the paper. Each reference list entry provides the author, date, title, and source of the work cited in the paper and enables readers to identify and retrieve the work (see Chapter 9 for how to create and order reference list entries). Figure 8.2 Correspondence Between a Reference List Entry and an In-Text Citation Note. The four elements of a reference list entry include the author (in purple), the date (in blue), the title (in yellow), and the source (in green). The in-text citations that correspond to this reference include the last name of the author and year of publication, which match the information in the reference list entry. Full Description. In an in-text citation, provide the surname(s) of the author(s) or the name(s) of the group author(s). Do not include suffixes such as “Jr.” in the in-text citation. (For authors with only one name or only a username, see Section 9.8.) The list of authors in an in-text citation may be shortened in certain cases (for individual authors, see Section 8.17; for group authors, see Section 8.21). To create an in-text citation for a work with an unknown or anonymous author, see Section 8.14. The date in the in-text citation should match the date in the reference list entry. Use only the year in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date (e.g., year, month, and day). For works with no date, use “n.d.” in the in-text citation (see also Section 9.17); for works that have been accepted for publication but have not yet been published, use “in press.” Do not use phrases like “in progress” for draft manuscripts; instead, use the year the draft was written (see Section 10.8). Each in-text citation must correspond to only one reference list entry. Avoid ambiguity when abbreviating the list of authors (see Sections 8.17 and 8.21), when multiple works have the same author(s) and date (see Section 8.19), and when multiple first authors share the same surname (see Section 8.20). 8.11 Parenthetical and Narrative Citations In-text citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative. In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date (or equivalent information; see Section 9.12) appear in parentheses. In narrative citations, this information is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence. Parenthetical Citation. Both the author and the date, separated by a comma, appear in parentheses for a parenthetical citation. A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence. When a parenthetical citation is at the end of a sentence, put the period or other end punctuation after the closing parenthesis. Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public’s perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016). If other text appears with the parenthetical citation, use commas around the year. (see Koehler, 2016, for more detail) When text and a citation appear together in parentheses, use a semicolon to separate the citation from the text; do not use parentheses within parentheses. (e.g., falsely balanced news coverage; Koehler, 2016) Narrative Citation. The author appears in running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name for a narrative citation. Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage. In rare cases, the author and date might both appear in the narrative. In this case, do not use parentheses. In 2016, Koehler noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage. 8.12 Citing Multiple Works When citing multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons. Listing both parenthetical in-text citations and reference list entries in alphabetical order helps readers locate and retrieve works because they are listed in the same order in both places. (Adams et al., 2019; Shumway & Shulman, 2015; Westinghouse, 2017) Arrange two or more works by the same authors by year of publication. Place citations with no date first, followed by works with dates in chronological order; in-press citations appear last. Give the authors’ surnames once; for each subsequent work, give only the date. (Department of Veterans Affairs, n.d., 2017a, 2017b, 2019) Zhou (n.d., 2000, 2016, in press) In the case of multiple works in which some author names have been abbreviated to “et al.” (see Section 8.17), place the citations in chronological order (regardless of the order in which they appear in the reference list). (Carraway et al., 2013, 2014, 2019) To highlight the work(s) most directly relevant to your point in a given sentence, place those citations first within parentheses in alphabetical order and then insert a semicolon and a phrase, such as “see also,” before the first of the remaining citations, which should also be in alphabetical order. This strategy allows authors to emphasize, for example, the most recent or most important research on a topic, which would not be reflected by alphabetical order alone. (Sampson & Hughes, 2020; see also Augustine, 2017; Melara et al., 2018; Pérez, 2014) Readers may find a long string of citations difficult to parse, especially if they are using assistive technology such as a screen reader; therefore, include only those citations needed to support your immediate point (for more on appropriate level of citation, see Section 8.1). If multiple sources are cited within the narrative of a sentence, they can appear in any order. Suliman (2018), Gutiérrez (2012, 2017), and Medina and Reyes (2019) examined . . . 8.13 Citing Specific Parts of a Source To cite a specific part of a source, provide an author–date citation for the work plus information about the specific part. There are many possible parts to cite, including pages, paragraphs, sections, tables, figures, supplemental materials, or footnotes from an article, book, report, webpage, or other work; chapters, forewords, or other sections of authored books; time stamps of videos or audiobooks; and slide numbers in PowerPoint presentations. For religious and classical works with canonically numbered parts common across editions (e.g., books, chapters, verses, lines, cantos), cite the part instead of a page number (see Section 9.42). (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, p. 10) (Shimamura, 2017, Chapter 3) (Armstrong, 2015, pp. 3–17) (Shadid, 2020, paras. 2–3) (Kovačič & Horvat, 2019, Table 1) (Thompson, 2020, Slide 7) (Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 2012, 1:30:40) (King James Bible, 1769/2017, 1 Cor. 13:1) (Aristotle, ca. 350 B.C.E./1994, Part IV) (Shakespeare, 1623/1995, 1.3.36–37) In the reference list, provide an entry for the entire work (not only the part that you used). It is possible to cite a specific part of a source whether you are paraphrasing (see Sections 8.23–8.24) or directly quoting (see Sections 8.25–8.27). For further guidance on quoting works without page numbers (e.g., webpages, websites, audiovisual works) and religious and classical works with canonically numbered sections, see Section 8.28. 8.14 Unknown or Anonymous Author When the author of a work is not named, the author may be unknown (i.e., no author is listed on the work, as with a religious work) or identified specifically as “Anonymous.” For works with an unknown author (see Section 9.12), include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation (note that the title moves to the author position in the reference list entry as well). If the title of the work is italicized in the reference, also italicize the title in the in-text citation. If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation. Capitalize these titles in the text using title case (see Section 6.17), even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry. If the title is long, shorten it for the in-text citation. Book with no author: (Interpersonal Skills, 2019) Magazine article with no author: (“Understanding Sensory Memory,” 2018) When the author of a work is overtly designated as “Anonymous” (see Section 9.12), “Anonymous” takes the place of the author name in the in-text citation. (Anonymous, 2017) 8.15 Translated, Reprinted, Republished, and Reissued Dates References to translated, reprinted, republished, or reissued works (see Sections 9.39–9.41) contain two dates in the in-text citation: the year of publication of the original work and the year of publication of the translation, reprint, republication, or reissue. Separate the years with a slash, with the earlier year first (see Chapter 10, Example 29). Freud (1900/1953) (Piaget, 1966/2000) 8.16 Omitting the Year in Repeated Narrative Citations In general, include the author and date in every in-text citation. If you need to repeat a citation (see Section 8.1), repeat the entire citation; do not, for example, include only a page number (the abbreviation “ibid.” is not used in APA Style). The year can be omitted from a citation only when multiple narrative citations to a work appear within a single paragraph (see Figure 8.3 for an example). Figure 8.3 Example of Repeated Narrative Citations With the Year Omitted Full Description. Once you have provided a narrative citation to a work in a paragraph, do not repeat the year in subsequent narrative citations in that same paragraph. Follow this guideline with each paragraph (i.e., include the year in the first narrative citation in a new paragraph). Include the year in every parenthetical citation. However, if you cite multiple works by the same author or authors, regardless of the publication years, include the date in every in-text citation to prevent ambiguity. For example, if you cite Mohammed and Mahfouz (2017) and Mohammed and Mahfouz (2019), include the year with every citation, even when one of the references is cited multiple times in a single paragraph. 8.17 Number of Authors to Include in In-Text Citations The format of the author element of the in-text citation changes depending on the number of authors and is abbreviated in some cases. See Table 8.1 for examples of the basic in-text citation styles. For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity (see Section 8.18). Table 8.1 Basic In-Text Citation Styles Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020) Two authors (Salas & D’Agostino, 2020) Salas and D’Agostino (2020) Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020) Group author with abbreviation First citation a (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020) Subsequent citations (NIMH, 2020) NIMH (2020) Group author without abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020) a Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format. Thereafter, use the abbreviation for all mentions of the group in the text (see Section 8.21). In parenthetical citations, use an ampersand (&) between names for a work with two authors or before the last author when all names must be included to avoid ambiguity (see Section 8.18). In narrative citations, spell out the word “and.” (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 2007) Eifert and Yildiz (2018) In tables and figures, use an ampersand between names in both parenthetical and narrative citations. The same guidelines apply when any of the authors are groups. For example, if a work is authored by three groups, the in-text citation would include the name of the first group plus “et al.” (American Educational Research Association et al., 2014) 8.18 Avoiding Ambiguity in In-Text Citations Sometimes multiple works with three or more authors and the same publication year shorten to the same in-text citation form when the guidelines described in Section 8.17 are applied, which creates ambiguity. To avoid ambiguity, when the in-text citations of multiple works with three or more authors shorten to the same form, write out as many names as needed to distinguish the references, and abbreviate the rest of the names to “et al.” in every citation. For example, two works have the following authors: Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, Warner, and Hill (2017) Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, Tang, Köroğlu, L’Enfant, Kim, and Daly (2017) Both these citations shorten to Kapoor et al. (2017). To avoid ambiguity when citing them both in your paper, cite them as follows: Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017) Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017) Because “et al.” is plural (meaning “and others”), it cannot stand for only one name. When only the final author is different, spell out all names in every citation. Hasan, Liang, Kahn, and Jones-Miller (2015) Hasan, Liang, Kahn, and Weintraub (2015) 8.19 Works With the Same Author and Same Date When multiple references have an identical author (or authors) and publication year, include a lowercase letter after the year (see Section 9.47). The year–letter combination is used in both the in-text citation and the reference list entry. Use only the year with a letter in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date. (Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012a) Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller (2012b) (Sifuentes, n.d.-a, n.d.-b) 8.20 Authors With the Same Surname If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname but have different initials, include the first authors’ initials in all in-text citations, even if the year of publication differs. Initials help avoid confusion within the text and help readers locate the correct entry in the reference list (see Section 9.48). (J. M. Taylor & Neimeyer, 2015; T. Taylor, 2014) If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname and the same initials, cite the works in the standard author–date format. Sometimes people publish under multiple names because of a name change (e.g., transgender authors, authors with a change in marital status). It is seldom relevant to note that two names refer to the same person. When a given name has changed, include initials with in-text citations only when the initials are different. If it is necessary to clarify that two names refer to the same person (e.g., to avoid confusion when reviewing an author’s body of work), consult the person and respect their preferences in whether and how to address the name change. If it is necessary to clarify that two names refer to different people to avoid confusion, include the first name of the first author in the in-text citation: “Sarah Williams (2019) stated X, whereas Shonda Williams (2020) stated Y.” If multiple authors within a single reference share the same surname, the initials are not needed in the in-text citation; cite the work in the standard author–date format. (Chen & Chen, 2019) 8.21 Abbreviating Group Authors If a reference has a group author, the name of the group can sometimes be abbreviated—for example, “American Psychological Association” can be abbreviated to “APA.” You are not obligated to abbreviate the name of a group author, but you can if the abbreviation is well-known, will help avoid cumbersome repetition, or will appear at least three times in the paper. As with other abbreviations (see Section 6.25), provide the full name of the group on first mention in the text, followed by the abbreviation. If the group name first appears in a narrative citation, include the abbreviation before the year in parentheses, separated with a comma. The American Psychological Association (APA, 2017) described . . . If the group name first appears in a parenthetical citation, include the abbreviation in square brackets, followed by a comma and the year. (American Psychological Association [APA], 2017) In the reference list entry, do not abbreviate the group author name. Instead, spell out the full name of the group as presented in the source. American Psychological Association. (2017, January). Understanding and overcoming opioid abuse. https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/opioid-abuse.aspx If several references have the same group author, introduce the abbreviation only once in the text. In the rare case that two different groups abbreviate to the same form (e.g., both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association abbreviate to “APA”) and you cite both groups in your paper, spell out each name every time to avoid confusion. If a work has three or more group authors, the in-text citation is also shortened as described in Section 8.17. 8.22 General Mentions of Websites, Periodicals, and Common Software and Apps For a general mention of a website with no indication of particular information or a specific page from that site, no reference list entry or in-text citation is needed. Provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. For example, if you used a website to create a survey, mention the website in the text. We created our survey using Qualtrics (https://www.qualtrics.com). A variation of this technique is also used for general mentions of periodicals. For example, if you want to include the name of a journal you searched during a meta-analysis, provide the journal title (in italic) using title case. I searched the Journal of Abnormal Psychology for studies to include in the meta-analysis. Common software and mobile apps are treated in a similar manner; in most cases, it is sufficient to mention the name of the program or app and the version used (if known) in the text, without providing an in-text citation or reference list entry (see Section 10.10). Likewise, for apparatuses, provide a reference for specialized products only (see Section 10.10). Paraphrases and Quotations 8.23 Principles of Paraphrasing A paraphrase restates another’s idea (or your own previously published idea) in your own words. Paraphrasing is an effective writing strategy because it allows authors to summarize and synthesize information from one or more sources, focus on significant information, and compare and contrast relevant details. Published authors paraphrase their sources most of the time, rather than directly quoting the sources; student authors should emulate this practice by paraphrasing more than directly quoting. Use a professional tone when describing a concept, idea, or finding in your own words (see Section 4.7). Cite the work you paraphrase in the text using either the narrative or parenthetical format (see Section 8.11). Avid readers of science fiction and fantasy books are more likely than readers of other genres to believe in futuristic scenarios—for example, that it will someday be possible to travel to other galaxies or power a car on solar energy (Black et al., 2018). Although it is not required to provide a page or paragraph number in the citation for a paraphrase, you may include one in addition to the author and year when it would help interested readers locate the relevant passage within a long or complex work (e.g., a book). Webster-Stratton (2016) described a case example of a 4-year-old girl who showed an insecure attachment to her mother; in working with the family dyad, the therapist focused on increasing the mother’s empathy for her child (pp. 152–153). The guidelines in this section pertain to when authors read a primary source and paraphrase it themselves. If you read a paraphrase of a primary source in a published work and want to cite that source, it is best to read and cite the primary source directly if possible; if not, use a secondary source citation (see Section 8.6). 8.24 Long Paraphrases A paraphrase may continue for several sentences. In such cases, cite the work being paraphrased on first mention. Once the work has been cited, it is not necessary to repeat the citation as long as the context of the writing makes it clear that the same work continues to be paraphrased (see Figure 8.4 for an example). The citation may be either parenthetical or narrative; if you select the narrative approach and repeat the author names in the narrative of subsequent sentences, the year of the work can often be omitted (see Section 8.16). Figure 8.4 Example of a Long Paraphrase With a Single In-Text Citation Full Description. If the paraphrase continues into a new paragraph, reintroduce the citation. If the paraphrase incorporates multiple sources or switches among sources, repeat the citation so the source is clear (see Figure 8.5 for an example). Read your sentences carefully to ensure you have cited sources appropriately. Figure 8.5 Example of Repeated Citations Necessary to Clarify Sources Note. In this passage, some works are cited multiple times to support multiple points. It is necessary to repeat these citations because different combinations of works support different ideas—the sources change and thus must be made clear to readers. If all ideas had the same sources, it would not be necessary to repeat the citations. Full Description. 8.25 Principles of Direct Quotation A direct quotation reproduces words verbatim from another work or from your own previously published work. It is best to paraphrase sources (see Sections 8.23–8.24) rather than directly quoting them because paraphrasing allows you to fit material to the context of your paper and writing style. Use direct quotations rather than paraphrasing when reproducing an exact definition (see example in Section 6.22), when an author has said something memorably or succinctly, or when you want to respond to exact wording (e.g., something someone said). Instructors, programs, editors, and publishers may establish limits on the use of direct quotations. Consult with your instructor or editor if you are concerned that you may have too much quoted material in your paper. When quoting directly, always provide the author, year, and page number of the quotation in the in-text citation in either parenthetical or narrative format (see Section 8.11). To indicate a single page, use the abbreviation “p.” (e.g., p. 25, p. S41, p. e221); for multiple pages, use the abbreviation “pp.” and separate the page range with an en dash (e.g., pp. 34–36). If pages are discontinuous, use a comma between the page numbers (e.g., pp. 67, 72). If the work does not have page numbers, provide another way for the reader to locate the quotation (see Section 8.28). The format of a direct quotation depends on its length (fewer than 40 words vs. 40 words or more; see Sections 8.26–8.27). Regardless of quotation length, do not insert an ellipsis at the beginning and/or end of a quotation unless the original source includes an ellipsis. If you need to make changes to a direct quotation, see Sections 8.30 and 8.31. For other uses of quotation marks, such as when presenting verbatim instructions to participants or quotations from research participants, see Sections 6.7 and 8.36, respectively. To reproduce material that is already a direct quotation in the work you are citing, see Section 8.33. 8.26 Short Quotations (Fewer Than 40 Words) If a quotation consists of fewer than 40 words, treat it as a short quotation: Incorporate it into the text and enclose it within double quotation marks. For a direct quotation, always include a full citation (parenthetical or narrative) in the same sentence as the quotation. Place a parenthetical citation either immediately after the quotation or at the end of the sentence. For a narrative citation, include the author and year in the sentence and then place the page number or other location information in parentheses after the quotation; if the quotation precedes the narrative citation, put the page number or location information after the year and a comma. If the citation appears at the end of a sentence, put the end punctuation after the closing parenthesis for the citation. If the quotation includes citations, see Section 8.32; if the quotation includes material already in quotation marks, see Section 8.33. Place periods and commas within closing single or double quotation marks. Place other punctuation marks inside quotation marks only when they are part of the quoted material. Short quotations can be presented in a variety of ways, as shown in Table 8.2. Table 8.2 Examples of Direct Quotations Cited in the Text Correct Incorrect Rationale Effective teams can be difficult to describe because “high performance along one domain does not translate to high performance along another” (Ervin et al., 2018, p. 470). Effective teams can be difficult to describe because “high performance along one domain does not translate to high performance along another.” (Ervin et al., 2018, p. 470) The period marking the end of a sentence should follow the citation, not precede it. “Even smart, educated, emotionally stable adults believe superstitions that they recognize are not rational,” as exemplified by the existence of people who knock on wood for good luck (Risen, 2016, p. 202). “Even smart, educated, emotionally stable adults believe superstitions that they recognize are not rational (Risen, 2016, p. 202),” as exemplified by the existence of people who knock on wood for good luck. The citation should be outside the quotation marks, not within them. Biebel et al. (2018) noted that “incorporating the voice of students with psychiatric disabilities into supported education services can increase access, involvement, and retention” (p. 299). Biebel et al. (2018) noted that “incorporating the voice of students with psychiatric disabilities into supported education services can increase access, involvement, and retention.” (p. 299) The period marking the end of the sentence should follow the page number, not precede it. “Some people are hilarious, others are painfully unfunny, and most are somewhere in between,” wrote Nusbaum et al. (2017, p. 231) in their exploration of humor. “Some people are hilarious, others are painfully unfunny, and most are somewhere in between,” (p. 231) wrote Nusbaum et al. (2017) in their exploration of humor. The page number should be within the same parentheses as the year when the quotation precedes the narrative citation. The item read, “What were the best aspects of the program for you?” (Shayden et al., 2018, p. 304). The item read, “What were the best aspects of the program for you”? (Shayden et al., 2018, p. 304). The question mark that ends the quotation should appear within the quotation marks. In 2018, Soto argued that “more similar stimuli, such as those coming from the same modality, produce more configural processing” (p. 598). In 2018, Soto argued that “more similar stimuli, such as those coming from the same modality, produce more configural processing” (Soto, 2018, p. 598). It is not necessary to repeat the author and year within parentheses when they already appear in the narrative. 8.27 Block Quotations (40 Words or More) If a quotation contains 40 words or more, treat it as a block quotation. Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation. Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin. If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 in. Double-space the entire block quotation; do not add extra space before or after it. Either (a) cite the source in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation or (b) cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation. Do not add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case. Block quotation with parenthetical citation: Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves: Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957) Block quotation with narrative citation: Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color: Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311) Block quotation consisting of two paragraphs: Regarding implications for chronic biases in expectation formation, in order to accurately estimate whether people are likely to form positive or negative expectations on any given occasion, it is necessary to go beyond simply considering chronic individual differences and identify the factors that make people more likely to form expectations in line with one bias or the other. The present research sheds light on this issue by identifying a crucial distinction in the operation of these two trait biases in expectation formation. Specifically, people’s valence weighting biases and self-beliefs about the future appear to shape expectations via qualitatively distinct processes. (Niese et al., 2019, p. 210) If the block quotation includes citations, see Section 8.32; if the block quotation includes material already in quotation marks, see Section 8.33. 8.28 Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers Textual Works. To directly quote from written material that does not contain page numbers (e.g., webpages and websites, some ebooks), provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Any of the following approaches is acceptable; use the approach that will best help readers find the quotation: Provide a heading or section name. For people with osteoarthritis, “painful joints should be moved through a full range of motion every day to maintain flexibility and to slow deterioration of cartilage” (Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, Osteoarthritis section). Provide an abbreviated heading or section name in quotation marks to indicate the abbreviation if the full heading or section name is too long or unwieldy to cite in full. In the next example, the original heading was “What Can You Do to Prevent Kidney Failure?” and the items are quoted separately because they originally appeared as part of a bulleted list. To prevent kidney failure, patients should “get active,” “quit smoking,” and “take medications as directed” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017, “What Can You Do” section). Provide a paragraph number (count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered). People planning for retirement need more than just money—they also “need to stockpile their emotional reserves” to ensure adequate support from family and friends (Chamberlin, 2014, para. 1). Provide a heading or section name in combination with a paragraph number. Music and language are intertwined in the brain such that “people who are better at rhythmic memory skills tend to excel at language skills as well” (DeAngelis, 2018, Musical Forays section, para. 4). Do not include Kindle location numbers with in-text citations. Instead, provide the page number (which is available in many Kindle books, especially those based on print editions) or use the methods described in this section to create a page number alternative. Note that the name of the section or other part of the work will not necessarily appear in the reference list entry for the work. For example, if you cite a particular section of a webpage or website in the text, the reference list entry should be for the page you used, not for only that section of the page. Audiovisual Works. To directly quote from an audiovisual work (e.g., audiobook, YouTube video, TED Talk, TV show), provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number. People make “sweeping inferences and judgments from body language” (Cuddy, 2012, 2:12). Works With Canonically Numbered Sections. To directly quote from material with canonically numbered sections (e.g., religious or classical works; see also Section 9.42 and Chapter 10, Examples 35–37), use the name of the book, chapter, verse, line, and/or canto instead of a page number. The person vowed to “set me as a seal upon thine heart” (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6). For plays, cite the act, scene, and line(s). In the following example, “1.3.36–37” refers to Act 1, Scene 3, Lines 36 and 37. In Much Ado About Nothing, Don John said, “In the meantime / let me be that I am and seek not to alter me” (Shakespeare, 1623/1995, 1.3.36–37). 8.29 Accuracy of Quotations Direct quotations must be accurate. Except as noted here and in Sections 8.30 and 8.31, the quotation must match the wording, spelling, and interior punctuation of the original source, even if the source is incorrect. If any incorrect spelling, punctuation, or grammar in the source might confuse readers, insert the word “[sic],” italicized and in brackets, immediately after the error in the quotation. (See Section 8.31 regarding the use of square brackets to clarify meaning in quotations.) A quotation that includes an error may be distracting, so consider paraphrasing instead. When quoting, always check your paper against the source to ensure that there are no discrepancies. Nowak (2019) wrote that “people have an obligation to care for there [sic] pets” (p. 52). 8.30 Changes to a Quotation Requiring No Explanation Some changes can be made to direct quotations without alerting readers: The first letter of the first word in a quotation may be changed to an uppercase or a lowercase letter to fit the context of the sentence in which the quotation appears. Some punctuation marks at the end of a quotation may be changed to fit the syntax of the sentence in which the quotation appears, as long as meaning is not changed (e.g., it might alter meaning to change a period to a question mark, depending on how the sentence is written). Single quotation marks may be changed to double quotation marks and vice versa. Footnote or endnote number callouts can be omitted (see also Section 8.32). Any other changes (e.g., italicizing words for emphasis or omitting words; see Section 8.31) must be explicitly indicated. For more on quoting from a bulleted list without reproducing the bullets, see the second example in Section 8.28. 8.31 Changes to a Quotation Requiring Explanation Some changes to direct quotations require explanation, as shown in the example in Figure 8.6. Figure 8.6 Example of Changes Made to a Direct Quotation Note. In this passage, some works are cited multiple times to support multiple points. It is necessary to repeat these citations because different combinations of works support different ideas—the sources change and thus must be made clear to readers. If all ideas had the same sources, it would not be necessary to repeat the citations. Full Description. Omitting Material. Use an ellipsis to indicate that you have omitted words within a quotation (e.g., to shorten a sentence or tie two sentences together). Either type three periods with spaces around each ( . . . ) or use the ellipsis character created by your word-processing program when you type three periods in a row ( … ), with a space before and after. Do not use an ellipsis at the beginning or end of any quotation unless the original source includes an ellipsis; start or end the quotation at the point where the source’s text begins or ends. Use four periods—that is, a period plus an ellipsis (. … )—to show a sentence break within omitted material, such as when a quotation includes the end of one sentence and the beginning of another sentence. Inserting Material. Use square brackets, not parentheses, to enclose material such as an addition or explanation you have inserted in a quotation. Adding Emphasis. If you want to emphasize a word or words in a quotation, use italics. Immediately after the italicized words, insert “emphasis added” within square brackets as follows: [emphasis added]. 8.32 Quotations That Contain Citations to Other Works When quoting material that contains embedded citations, include the citations within the quotation. Do not include these works in the reference list unless you cite them as primary sources elsewhere in your paper. In the following example, Panero et al. (2016) would appear in the reference list, but the Stanislavski citations would not: Actors “are encouraged to become immersed in a character’s life (Stanislavski, 1936/1948, 1950), an activity that calls for absorption” (Panero et al., 2016, p. 234). Footnote or endnote number callouts in the quoted material can be omitted with no explanation (see Section 8.30). If citations appear at the end of material you want to quote, it is common practice to end the quotation before the citations and to cite only the work you read (see Figure 8.7 for an example). It is appropriate to omit the citations at the end of a quotation when the material you quote represents a new approach to or conceptualization of the ideas presented in the cited works—for example, when authors have summarized a body of work and you want to quote and cite that summary. If you want to quote the same material that was quoted in the work you are citing, see Section 8.33. Figure 8.7 Example of Citations Omitted at the End of a Quotation Note. In the original passage, Killham et al. (2018) summarized the results of many studies and cited their sources at the end of the sentence. To quote Killham et al.’s summary in your paper, cite Killham et al., and omit the citations at the end of the original sentence. Interested readers can consult Killham et al. for further information. Full Description. 8.33 Quotations That Contain Material Already in Quotation Marks If your source includes a direct quotation from another work, and you would like to use the same direct quotation in your paper, it is best to read and cite the original source directly. If the original source is unavailable, cite the quotation using the secondary source (see Section 8.6). To quote material that already uses quotation marks for some other purpose (e.g., to enclose a phrase such as a coined expression or linguistic example; see Section 6.7), it may be necessary to change double quotation marks to single or vice versa in your paper depending on the number of words you are quoting. Short Quotations. For quotations of fewer than 40 words, use single quotation marks within double quotation marks to set off material that was enclosed in double quotation marks in the original source. Correct: Bliese et al. (2017) noted that “mobile devices enabled employees in many jobs to work ‘anywhere, anytime’ and stay electronically tethered to work outside formal working hours” (p. 391). Incorrect: Bliese et al. (2017) noted that “mobile devices enabled employees in many jobs to work “anywhere, anytime” and stay electronically tethered to work outside formal working hours” (p. 391). Block Quotations. Use double quotation marks around quoted material that appears within a block quotation. (If the original quotation marks were single quotation marks, as in British-style publications, change them to double quotation marks in your paper.) Correct: It is also worth considering the need for subjective certainty: If a conjecture is just mere guess, one would not expect the same bias to occur, because it might likely come along with the metacognition of “I know I am/was just guessing,” which would counteract retrospectively increased perceptions of foreseeability. (von der Beck & Cress, 2018, p. 97) Incorrect: It is also worth considering the need for subjective certainty: If a conjecture is just mere guess, one would not expect the same bias to occur, because it might likely come along with the metacognition of ‘I know I am/was just guessing,’ which would counteract retrospectively increased perceptions of foreseeability. (von der Beck & Cress, 2018, p. 97) 8.34 Permission to Reprint or Adapt Lengthy Quotations You may need written permission from the owner of a copyrighted work if you include lengthy quotations (usually more than 800 words) from it in your work. Quotations from shorter works (e.g., poems, songs) may also need permission. See Sections 12.14 to 12.18 for guidelines on citing these quotations. 8.35 Epigraphs An epigraph is a quotation that is used to introduce an article, book, chapter, dissertation, or other work. Authors may use an epigraph to set the stage for what follows or to serve as a summary or counterpoint. The epigraph should appear before the first line of text and should be indented 0.5 in. from the left margin, like a block quotation, without quotation marks. The source of an epigraph is not usually listed in the reference list unless the work is cited elsewhere in the text of the paper or is important within the context of the topic. If the source of the epigraph is not included in the reference list, on the line below the quotation, provide the credit line—consisting of an em dash and then the author’s full name, a comma, and the title of the work in which the quotation appeared—and align it to the right. Research is formalized curiosity. It is poking and prying with a purpose. —Zora Neale Hurston, Dust Tracks on a Road However, do provide a reference list entry for an epigraph from an academic source (e.g., scholarly book or journal) or a quotation used with permission. The parenthetical citation, including the author, date, and page number, appears after the end punctuation of the quotation with no line break. The example quotation comes from a republished work (see Chapter 10, Example 29). If life is to be sustained, hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired. (Erikson, 1966/2000, p. 192) 8.36 Quotations From Research Participants Quotations from participants whom you interviewed as part of your research are treated differently than quotations from published works. When quoting research participants, use the same formatting as for other quotations: Present a quotation of fewer than 40 words in quotation marks within the text (see Section 8.26), and present a quotation of 40 words or more in a block quotation (see Section 8.27). Because quotations from research participants are part of your original research, do not include them in the reference list or treat them as personal communications; state in the text that the quotations are from participants. When quoting research participants, abide by the ethical agreements regarding confidentiality and/or anonymity between you and your participants. Take extra care to obtain and respect participants’ consent to have their information included in your report. You may need to assign participants a pseudonym, obscure identifying information, or present information in the aggregate (strategies for adequately disguising materials are further described in Sections 1.14 and 1.19; see also Section 1.15 regarding confidentiality in qualitative studies). Participant “Julia,” a 32-year-old woman from California, described her experiences as a new mother as “simultaneously the best and hardest time of my life.” Several other participants agreed, describing the beginning of parenthood as “joyful,” “lonely,” and “intense.” Julia and the other participants completed interviews in their homes. Agreements regarding confidentiality and/or anonymity may also extend to other sources related to your methodology (e.g., quoting a school policy document when conducting a case study at a school). These sources would not be cited in text or listed in the reference list because doing so would compromise the school’s confidentiality and/or anonymity. However, it may be possible to discuss information from these sources in the text if the material is suitably disguised. Our study was conducted at a high school in Atlanta, Georgia. School administrators provided documents containing students’ average test scores and the percentage of students receiving free or reduced-price lunch. We used these data to contextualize the impact of our intervention.
Perfectionism has been argued to have both positive and negative aspects. Negative perfectionism has a robust positive correlation with psychopathology. This study explored the personality pattern of a group of clinical participants and a group of athletes in relation to positive and negative perfectionism. The results indicated negative perfectionism is related to neuroticism and agreeableness in both clinical and non-clinical groups. Negative perfectionism was most strongly associated with low agreeableness but had no significant relationship with conscientiousness or extraversion in the clinical sample. In the athlete sample, higher negative perfectionism was most strongly related to higher neuroticism but was also associated with lower extraversion and conscientiousness. In order to more fully understand these relationships and their clinical implications, more studies using validated measures of positive and negative perfectionism with larger samples are required. It would be useful to determine if personality factors of agreeableness and competence could be increased in order to ameliorate the distress associated with negative perfectionism.
* Keywords: perfectionism, personality, neuroticism, agreeableness
Perfectionism has various definitions; however, multidimensional definitions of the construct include key aspects of striving for high personal standards and concern over mistakes (Bieling, Israeli, & Antony, 2004). The two most common measures are the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales (MPS). The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990) consists of six subscales: personal standards (PS), concern over mistakes (CM), doubts about actions (DA), parental expectations (PE), parental criticism (PC) and organisation (O). The Hewitt Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (HMPS; Hewitt & Flett, 1991) has subscales of self-oriented perfectionism (SOP): striving for personal standards; socially-prescribed perfectionism (SPP): thinking others hold high standards for the individual; and other-oriented perfectionism (OOP): belief others should be perfect. Factor analyses have found a consistent two-factor structure: positive achievement striving (SOP, PS, O, OOP) and maladaptive evaluative concerns (CM, DA, PC, PE, SPP; e.g., Bieling et al., 2004). There have also been specific measures designed to capture these ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ aspects of perfectionism, including the Positive 104 and Negative Perfectionism Scale (PANPS; Terry-Short, Owens, Slade, & Dewey, 1995). Positive achievement striving has been found to be correlated with positive outcomes in some studies (see Stoeber & Otto, 2006, for a review), while maladaptive evaluative concerns represents the negative aspects of perfectionism, which include concern over mistakes and believing others expect one to be perfect, and is related robustly to negative outcomes and psychopathology (see Egan, Wade, & Shafran, 2011, for a review).
A number of studies have explored the relationship between perfectionism and personality, with most focusing on the Big Five model, representing five dimensions of normal personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness (Costa & McCrae, 1992). There have been some arguments that perfectionism is in itself a personality trait (e.g., Zuroff, 1994); others have argued that it is a process that consists of cognitive and behavioural elements (see Egan, Wade et al., 2011) and that negative aspects of perfectionism can be reduced through cognitive-behavioural treatment (Shafran, Egan, & Wade, 2010; Egan, Wade, Shafran, & Antony, 2014). This argument that perfectionism can be reduced through treatment lends support to the idea that perfectionism is not a personality trait per se.
It has been well established that perfectionism is correlated with neuroticism; for example, socially prescribed perfectionism is positively correlated with neuroticism (Cruce, Pashak, Handal, Munz, & Gfeller, 2012; Dunkley, Blankstein, & Flett, 1997). Furthermore, a number of studies have found that higher perfectionism is related to lower agreeableness (Dunkley et al., 1997; Dunkley, Sanislow, Grilo, & McGlashan, 2004; Zuroff, 1994) with only one study finding no relationship (Stumpf & Parker, 2000). Numerous studies have found conscientiousness is positively correlated with perfectionism, including personal standards on the FMPS (Cruce et al., 2012; Dunkley et al., 1997; Dunkley, Blankstein, Zuroff, Lecce, & Hui, 2006; Stumpf & Parker, 2000). Studies utilising the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS; Weissman & Beck, 1978) to measure perfectionism, have found positive correlations between neuroticism and perfectionism and negative correlations between extraversion and perfectionism (Dunkley et al., 1997; Dunkley et al., 2004; Zuroff, 1994).
There is a paucity of literature, however, that has specifically considered positive and negative perfectionism in relation to personality. Stumpf and Parker (2000) argued that negative perfectionism was associated with neuroticism due to the positive correlation they found between neuroticism and CM and DA. They further argued that positive perfectionism was associated with conscientiousness, due to the positive correlation found with PS.
There are several problems, however, with interpreting the results of the relationship between positive and negative perfectionism and personality from the studies reviewed. The studies by Dunkley and colleagues (e.g., Dunkley et al., 1997; Dunkley et al., 2004) used the DAS as the measure of perfectionism, and while the DAS is thought to be primarily a measure of negative perfectionism, it is hard to interpret results in terms of negative and positive perfectionism, as the DAS was not designed to measure perfectionism or to distinguish types of perfectionism. While a number of studies have utilised the FMPS and HMPS to investigate personality, these measures are not specifically designed to make a distinction between positive and negative perfectionism, unlike specific measures such as the PANPS (Terry-Short et al., 1995).
It would be useful for research to consider which aspects of personality may be related specifically to positive and negative perfectionism. This is because it may help us to understand the differences between groups where striving for achievement is seen as a more healthy pursuit and positive trait, and those groups where it is associated with negative outcomes such as anxiety and depression. Further understanding these differences may help to inform treatment of perfectionism and prevention approaches aimed at identifying those at risk of negative outcomes due to perfectionism.
The aim of this research was to utilise a specific measure that distinguishes positive and negative perfectionism to examine personality in individuals high or low on positive and negative perfectionism. Athletes have been found to score lower on negative perfectionism than other groups (Terry-Short et al., 1995) and so may be hypothesised to differ from a clinical group on personality traits. Athletes who scored low on negative perfectionism and a group of persons seeking treatment for a psychological disorder who scored high on negative perfectionism were included as comparison groups. We expected a significant negative relationship between negative perfectionism and agreeableness and between negative perfectionism and extraversion in both groups, and a significant positive association between positive perfectionism and these facets in both athlete and clinical samples. As no research has examined differences in personality facets between athletes and a clinical group, between-group differences in personality were exploratory.
There were 39 participants from two groups: 19 individuals with a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and/or depression attending an outpatient clinic (85% females) with a mean age of 40.5 years (SD = 6.6), and 20 athletes (60% females) with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD = 14.3). Although there were more males in the athlete group than the clinical group, this difference was not significant, χ 2(1) = 2.82, ns.The athletes were recruited from a mail-out to members of the Triathlon Association of Western Australia. The 111 respondents represented a response rate of 24%. After administering the PANPS to all participants, the 20 who obtained the lowest negative perfectionism score were selected for this study.
The clinical participants were recruited from the Psychology Clinic at Curtin University. The inclusion criteria were a DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of an anxiety or depressive disorder, and no suicidal ideation or a psychotic disorder. In most cases (68%), participants had two or more disorders. Common disorders included major depression (58%), obsessive compulsive disorder (42%), generalised anxiety disorder (37%), social phobia (32%), panic disorder with and without agoraphobia (11%), post-traumatic stress disorder (11%) and alcohol abuse (5%). Across the sample, the severity of depression was mild on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), M = 19.5, SD = 13.25.
The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale (PANPS; Terry-Short et al., 1995). The PANPS is a 40-item self-report scale that was used to measure positive and negative perfectionism. It has good internal consistency in samples of athletes, ranging 106 from .83 to .84 for positive perfectionism and .81 to .88 for negative perfectionism (Haase & Prapavessis, 2004; Haase, Prapavessis, & Owens 1999, 2002).
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and Personality Disorders (SCID-I/P, Version 2.0; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1996; SCID-II, Version 2.0; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Lorna, 1994). The SCID I/P was used to determine the axis I DSM-IV (APA, 1994) diagnoses for the clinical participants and the SCID-II was used to determine their Axis II diagnoses. They are widely used as a diagnostic measure and the SCID-I/P has moderate reliability, with a moderate test-retest reliability of .69, and a moderate interrater reliability of .68 (Zanarini et al., 2000).
Beck Depression Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-II; Beck et al., 1996). The 21-item BDI-II was used to assess depression in the clinical sample, and was not administered to the athlete sample. It has good internal consistency (alpha = .92) and test-retest reliability (.93; Beck et al.).
The NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). The NEO-PI-R is a 240-item measure of the five-factor model of normal personality consisting of: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness to Experience (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C) and has excellent reliability and validity (Costa, McCrae, & Dye, 1991).
The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983). The BSI is a 53-item brief self-report symptom measure designed for clinical and non-clinical populations. The BSI was included in the study to ensure that the athlete sample was not suffering from significant psychological distress. The BSI has good reliability, with the overall scale having test-retest reliability of 0.90, and acceptable internal consistency (range = 0.71-0.85; Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983).
All participants completed an information and consent form and the research was approved by the Curtin University Ethics Committee. The athletes returned completed questionnaires via mail, and the clinical group returned questionnaires at the clinic.
Between Group Comparisons of Positive Perfectionism, Negative Perfectionism, Psychological Distress and Personality
The mean scores on the GSI, perfectionism measure and NEO-PI-R domains for each group are shown in Table 1. Analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in positive perfectionism between the clinical and athlete group, F(1, 37) = .0001, p = .98. However, it can be seen from Table 1 that the clinical group had significantly higher negative perfectionism than athletes with a large effect size, F(1, 37) = 127.74, p = .0001, partial η2 = .77. There was also a significant difference between Global Severity Index (GSI) t-scores, F(1, 37) = 42.11, p = .0001, partial η2 = .53. Table 1 shows the clinical group had a mean GSI score in the clinical range, whereas the athletes were in a normal range. Consequently, it can be concluded that the clinical and athlete group were from different populations, in terms of negative perfectionism and psychological distress.
When comparing the mean scores on each of the NEO domain and facet scores, it can be seen that the clinical group had a higher degree of neuroticism than the athlete group, F(1, 37) = 63.62, p = .0001, partial η2 = .63, and the athlete group had significantly higher scores on extraversion than the clinical group, F(1, 37) = 14.27, p = .001, partial η2 = .27. The only other significant difference was in conscientiousness, where the athlete group had significantly higher conscientiousness than the clinical group, F(1, 37) = 4.95, p = .03, partial η2 = .11. There were no significant group differences on openness to experience, F(1, 37) = .01, p = .90, partial η2 = .0001, and agreeableness, F(1, 37) = .44, p = .50, partial η2 = .01.
The athlete group showed a significantly higher level of achievement striving (M = 56.46, SD = 12.75) than the clinical group (M = 46.94, SD = 13.32), F(1, 37) = 6.13, p = .02, partial η2 = .14. There was also a significant difference between groups found on the facet of competence, where the athletes had higher scores (M = 53.80, SD = 9.75) than the clinical group (M= 44.84, SD = 16.90), F(1, 37) = 4.16, p = .01, partial η2 = .10. There were no significant differences found on the facet of order between athletes (M = 54.20, SD = 13.88) and the clinical group (M = 50.10, SD = 18.39), F(1, 37) = .64, p = .42.
Relationships Between Age, Gender, Personality Domains, and Positive and Negative Perfectionism
It can be seen in Table 2 that there was a significant correlation between gender and neuroticism in the clinical group, indicating that females in the clinical group had higher neuroticism than males. The only other significant correlation was a negative correlation between age and positive perfectionism in the athlete group. This indicated that younger age was related to higher positive perfectionism.
Correlations Between Personality, Positive Perfectionism and Negative Perfectionism
The results of bivariate correlations between the five personality domains, positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism for both groups can be seen in Table 3. For the clinical group, positive perfectionism had no significant relationship with any of the personality domains. In contrast, a significant negative correlation was found between negative perfectionism and agreeableness, indicating that lower agreeableness is related to higher negative perfectionism. There were also significant positive correlations between negative perfectionism and neuroticism and openness to experience.
There were also several significant associations found between the variables in the athlete group, although as with the clinical group, there were no significant associations between positive perfectionism and the five personality domains. For negative perfectionism, there was a significant positive correlation with neuroticism. Furthermore, significant negative correlations were found between negative perfectionism and the domains of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
The majority of our predictions regarding relationships between negative perfectionism and personality were supported. As expected, higher negative perfectionism was associated with higher neuroticism and lower agreeableness in both the athlete and clinical groups. Our prediction that negative perfectionism would be negatively correlated with extraversion was supported in the athlete group only. We also found that higher negative perfectionism in the athletes was associated with lower conscientiousness. None of our predictions concerning positive perfectionism and personality were supported. The major finding of this study is that negative perfectionism is associated with distinct personality profiles that appear to differ between clinical versus non-clinical populations. In addition, the results of this study suggest that out of the two subtypes of perfectionism (positive and negative), negative perfectionism may be the more important variable to investigate, given its strong association with different aspects of personality.
This study confirmed the well-established pattern of higher neuroticism and lower extraversion in clinical compared to non-clinical populations (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Between-group differences are, however, of more interest. Athletes scored significantly higher on conscientiousness than the clinical group, specifically on the facets of achievement-striving, competence and order. These results fit with descriptions of athletes as being high in positive achievement striving (Gould, Dieffenbach, & Moffett, 2002). While we did not find a significant relationship between positive perfectionism and conscientiousness, in contrast to previous studies using PS (Stumpf & Parker, 2000) and self-oriented perfectionism (Hill, McIntire, & Bacharach, 1997), it is likely that the measure of positive perfectionism was insufficient to detect betweengroup differences. Although the positive perfectionism subscale has been found to have good internal consistency, there are some mixed findings regarding validity (see Egan, Piek, Dyck, & Kane, 2011). Further work comparing the positive perfectionism subscale to measures of achievement-striving would be valuable, as some authors have argued this is the critical aspect that distinguishes negative from positive perfectionism and that the literature should be using the term positive achievement striving rather than positive perfectionism (Frost, Heimberg, Holt, Mattia, & Neubauer, 1993).
It was also interesting to note that competence was higher in athletes. This result is not surprising as competence measures feelings of being capable and effective (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and is related to self-esteem (Costa et al., 1991), and the clinical group would be expected to be lower on self-esteem. One explanation of the differences in competence scores is that individuals high in negative perfectionism avoid starting tasks due to thinking they may not be able to achieve their high standard. This fits with Shafran, Cooper, and Fairburn’s (2002) explanation of avoidance as a key maintaining factor of clinical perfectionism. This suggests that cognitions regarding competence may be a particularly important aspect to target in treatments for people high in negative perfectionism.
The finding that negative perfectionism was associated with neuroticism in both samples is consistent with extensive evidence linking this personality trait with psychopathology (Costa & McCrae, 1992). It could be argued that the present findings simply reflect the difference between clinical and non-clinical groups, with clinical groups being high on neuroticism and low on extraversion, rather than reflecting differences in high and low negative perfectionism. However, this argument is unlikely because, although neuroticism was highly correlated with agreeableness, the association between negative perfectionism and agreeableness was stronger in both samples. This suggests that negative perfectionism may account for relationships with other personality factors beyond neuroticism. Future studies could test the unique contribution of negative perfectionism in predicting psychological distress and personality variables such as agreeableness and conscientiousness. Further research could also include only a clinical group and select from within this group individuals who score high and low on negative perfectionism. This would make it easier to determine the nature of relationships between personality and negative perfectionism without the confound of a clinical versus non-clinical group.
The other significant relationship between Big Five personality factors and negative perfectionism in both groups was that higher negative perfectionism was related to lower agreeableness. Individuals who score low on agreeableness are described as egocentric, antagonistic, tough-minded, low in altruism, and competitive rather than cooperative (Costa & McCrae, 1992). One explanation of the results is that agreeableness may be an indicator of complexity of psychopathology. This is based on research showing significantly lower agreeableness in individuals with a diagnosis of a personality disorder (Saulsman & Page, 2004; Saulsman, Page, & Egan, 2003). Furthermore, recent research has found that low agreeableness is related to perfectionism and relationship distress in couples (Egan, Vinciguerra, & Mazzucchelli, 2015). One hypothesis to explain our results is that when negative perfectionism is high, individuals are likely to create interpersonal difficulties due to their rigidity about completing tasks perfectly. For example, others may react with frustration to a negative perfectionist being rigid about needing a task to be performed well, which increases interpersonal difficulties. Future research may examine if negative perfectionism is a common factor in personality dysfunction.
There are several limitations of the study. First, it was correlational; therefore, no conclusions can be made regarding the causal nature of relationships between perfectionism and personality. Second, the sample size was small; while it was sufficient to examine between group differences with the statistical methods used, the study was underpowered and significant differences may not have been detected due to this. Finally, while the PANPS has shown good reliability and validity of the negative perfectionism subscale, the current findings add support to the idea that the positive perfectionism subscale may have questionable validity (Egan, Piek et al., 2011). Hence the measure of perfectionism used may not have been ideal in determining the differences in personality between groups that were of interest.
In summary, despite having similar levels of positive perfectionism, athletes had higher conscientiousness, achievement striving, competence and order. Personality differences between groups were best explained by differences in scores on negative as 111 opposed to positive perfectionism. In our clinical sample, negative perfectionism was most strongly associated with low agreeableness while in athletes, negative perfectionism was most strongly related to neuroticism but also associated with extraversion and conscientiousness. Future research should determine if targeting personality factors such as increasing agreeableness or competence in clinical groups with elevated perfectionism may be useful in reducing the negative impact of perfectionism and associated psychopathology.
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Sarah J. Egan,1 Jan P. Piek1 and Murray J. Dyck2
1 School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
2 School of Psychology, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Address for correspondence: Sarah J. Egan, School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Australia. E-mail: email@example.com
Word count: 4264
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