Statistics

PART 1

The coefficient of variation and the standard deviation are two measures of variability or dispersion among data values. Provide two different sets of ten data points each as examples. Calculate the standard deviation and coefficient of variation for each data set, being sure to attach your Excel file to show your work. Explain which of the two mentioned measures can more accurately specify which of these two data sets has more variability or dispersion in their data values and why. Research the method behind the Excel function “QUARTILE.EXC” for calculating quartiles for a given data set. Summarize this method in your own words and discuss how it differs from the method presented in the textbook and lecture.

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PART 2

Option #1: Springdale Shopping Survey

Instructions

The major shopping areas in the community of Springdale include Springdale Mall, West Mall, and the downtown area on Main Street. A telephone survey has been conducted to identify strengths and weaknesses of these areas and to find out how they fit into the shopping activities of local residents. The 150 respondents were also asked to provide information about themselves and their shopping habits. The data are provided in the file SHOPPING Download SHOPPING. The variables in the survey can be found in the file CODING Download CODING.

We will concentrate on variables 18–25, which reflect how important each of eight different attributes is in the respondent’s selection of a shopping area. Each of these variables has been measured on a scale of 1 (the attribute is not very important in choosing a shopping area) to 7 (the attribute is very important in choosing a shopping area). The attributes being rated for importance are listed below. Examining the relative importance customers place on these attributes can help a manager “fine-tune” his or her shopping area to make it a more attractive place to shop.

18 Easy to return/exchange goods

19 High quality of goods

20 Low prices

21 Good variety of sizes/styles

22 Sales staff helpful/friendly

23 Convenient shopping hours

24 Clean stores and surroundings

25 A lot of bargain sales

Perform the following operations for variables 18–25:

Compute descriptive statistics for each variable along with an explanation of what the descriptive statistics tell us about the variable. This will include the mean, mode, range, standard deviation, and the five-number summary (minimum, first quartile (Q1), median (Q2), third quartile (Q3), and maximum). Be sure to show each calculation in your spreadsheet.

Are there any data points for any of the variables that can be considered outliers? If there are any outliers in any variable, list them and state for which variable they are an outlier. Use the z-score method to determine any outliers for this question. Be sure to show each z-score calculation in your spreadsheet for each variable.

Based on the results for question 1, which attributes seem to be the most important and the least important in respondents’ choice of a shopping area? Which items from #1 did you use to decide on the least and most important attributes, and why?

Determine the correlation coefficient between variable 19 and variables 21 – 25. Provide an explanation of these relationships. Show your calculations for each correlation coefficient within the spreadsheet.

A
B
C
D
E
F
SPRIFREQ DOWNFREQ WESTFREQ SPRSPEND DOWSPEND WESSPEND
5
5
5
6
7
7
3
4
6
6
6
7
7
4
6
5
6
7
7
7
5
6
4
6
5
7
7
6
4
6
3
6
7
6
7
5
5
4
7
6
7
8
5
4
5
6
7
7
9
4
5
4
5
7
7
10
3
5
2
4
5
7
11
5
6
6
7
7
7
12
6
4
6
7
6
7
13
5
4
5
7
7
7
14
6
3
5
6
6
7
15
4
6
5
6
7
7
16
4
5
2
5
6
7
17
6
4
6
7
7
7
18
6
5
6
7
7
7
19
6
4
5
7
7
7
20
6
5
6
6
6
7
21
3
5
6
6
7
7
22
5
4
5
7
7
7
23
5
6
5
5
7
7
24
5
5
5
6
7
7
25
6
4
3
7
6
7
26
5
4
6
5
7
6
27
6
5
5
7
7
7
28
5
6
6
4
7
7
29
3
6
5
6
6
7
30
5
3
2
5
7
6
31
6
4
5
6
7
7
32
6
5
6
6
7
7
33
6
4
4
6
7
7
34
6
3
4
7
7
7
35
6
5
5
6
7
7
36
4
5
6
7
7
7
37
5
4
5
7
6
7
38
2
6
4
4
7
5
39
3
4
5
7
6
7
40
3
6
5
5
7
5
41
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2
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4
4
6
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2
4
4
5
5
3
3
3
1
2
5
6
3
2
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4
3
5
1
2
2
2
3
4
4
1
5
1
6
1
1
3
6
4
3
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6
2
2
6
2
6
1
6
4
3
4
5
3
2
5
2
2
4
6
5
5
5
2
5
2
4
3
4
4
1
6
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
4
6
5
6
3
5
5
3
3
2
3
1
3
5
6
6
3
1
1
6
1
4
6
3
1
5
6
3
3
2
5
4
2
2
5
6
3
4
3
6
5
6
7
5
6
6
6
6
2
2
5
2
7
3
4
4
6
1
2
7
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2
4
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5
6
2
4
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2
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1
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1
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1
7
3
6
2
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1
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1
1
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1
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3
7
1
1
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
5
1
2
4
3
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2
3
6
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1
2
5
2
2
6
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6
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6
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3
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1
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G
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SPRILIKE DOWNLIKE WESTLIKE BSTEXCHG BSTQUALI BSTPRICE BSTVARIE
4
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18
4
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19
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20
4
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1
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1
21
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1
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1
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1
23
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2
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32
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35
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36
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37
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38
5
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1
1
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3
1
2
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3
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1
1
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1
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2
1
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2
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1
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2
2
1
1
1
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1
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1
1
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3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
1
4
3
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
BSTHELP BSTHOURS BSTCLEAN BSTBARGN IMPEXCH IMPQUALI IMPPRICE
1
1
1
1
6
7
7
3
2
3
1
3
7
7
7
4
1
4
1
1
7
7
7
5
4
1
1
4
6
7
7
6
1
1
1
2
7
7
7
7
1
1
1
3
3
7
7
8
2
1
1
3
4
6
7
9
4
1
1
3
7
7
7
10
1
1
4
1
7
5
5
11
1
1
1
1
7
7
7
12
2
4
4
3
5
7
7
13
1
1
1
3
5
6
6
14
4
1
1
1
7
7
7
15
4
1
1
2
7
7
7
16
1
3
1
3
7
7
7
17
2
1
1
4
1
4
4
18
4
4
1
3
2
7
7
19
3
3
1
3
7
7
7
20
2
2
1
2
7
7
7
21
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
22
4
1
1
4
3
4
5
23
4
1
1
2
6
6
6
24
1
1
1
1
5
6
7
25
2
1
1
2
5
6
1
26
1
1
1
4
5
7
7
27
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
28
1
1
1
1
7
7
7
29
2
1
1
1
7
6
7
30
4
1
1
3
4
7
7
31
2
1
4
4
5
7
7
32
1
1
1
2
5
7
7
33
4
4
3
3
3
7
7
34
4
1
1
1
7
7
7
35
2
1
1
2
5
7
7
36
2
2
1
2
1
1
7
37
2
2
1
2
6
7
7
38
1
1
1
1
7
7
7
39
1
3
1
1
6
6
7
40
4
1
1
1
7
7
7
41
4
3
2
4
7
7
7
1
2
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
4
1
2
1
2
2
4
4
4
1
3
2
1
3
1
4
2
1
1
4
1
2
3
1
3
1
3
4
1
2
1
3
3
2
1
2
1
2
3
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
3
3
2
3
3
4
2
2
3
2
4
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
4
4
3
2
4
2
3
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
4
1
4
4
2
1
2
3
3
1
4
1
2
3
3
3
1
1
2
3
3
3
1
3
4
2
1
4
3
1
3
3
2
4
3
3
3
2
1
3
2
4
1
3
3
1
4
2
3
4
2
3
3
1
1
3
3
4
1
2
1
1
4
4
2
4
3
1
2
1
3
2
4
1
2
1
4
7
3
6
7
5
1
6
3
3
6
4
7
7
7
5
6
3
7
3
4
1
4
1
7
6
1
2
7
2
3
2
6
5
3
1
4
3
1
7
2
7
7
7
5
6
7
7
7
2
6
3
6
5
3
6
7
5
4
6
7
5
6
3
3
7
3
6
2
5
1
1
7
4
7
4
6
2
3
4
5
4
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
1
2
1
2
5
3
7
7
4
7
4
1
4
6
1
4
7
4
7
2
7
7
4
2
7
4
2
6
5
2
3
4
7
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
4
4
3
2
2
4
4
4
3
4
4
2
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
3
1
4
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
4
2
1
1
4
1
3
4
2
3
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
4
1
1
2
2
3
4
4
3
4
4
3
1
4
3
1
2
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
3
4
4
1
4
1
4
4
3
4
4
2
4
3
2
1
3
3
2
3
3
1
3
1
1
3
4
4
4
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
3
1
1
2
5
4
4
5
5
6
1
4
6
5
1
6
4
4
7
6
7
6
4
5
6
2
5
3
5
7
3
5
5
7
7
7
6
5
4
7
7
7
7
4
7
5
4
6
7
2
6
6
1
5
6
7
5
6
1
6
4
6
6
7
3
7
7
7
7
5
7
7
6
7
7
5
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
5
6
1
7
6
2
5
6
2
5
4
6
4
5
6
2
7
6
6
4
5
6
7
7
6
7
7
7
7
4
7
7
7
7
7
5
7
7
6
6
7
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
1
1
1
4
4
1
4
1
4
2
1
1
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
3
2
1
1
3
4
4
1
3
4
1
1
3
1
1
3
3
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
3
2
3
1
1
2
2
3
1
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
1
1
2
3
1
1
3
3
7
6
7
7
1
1
7
7
5
6
7
7
6
2
7
3
7
2
7
6
7
7
5
7
7
3
3
7
7
7
7
7
4
1
5
7
3
7
7
7
6
6
6
5
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
4
7
7
3
7
7
7
5
7
7
7
4
7
7
5
7
7
7
6
7
7
7
7
7
4
7
7
7
5
7
4
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
AA
IMPVARIE IMPHELP IMPHOURS IMPCLEAN IMPBARGN RESPGEND RESPEDUC
6
5
6
6
7
2
3
3
7
7
7
7
6
2
3
4
5
4
5
3
7
1
3
5
6
6
5
6
7
2
3
6
7
7
7
7
7
2
3
7
6
5
6
5
6
2
3
8
5
3
6
4
5
2
1
9
6
7
7
7
7
2
3
10
7
6
7
7
6
1
4
11
7
7
7
7
7
2
4
12
5
5
4
4
5
2
3
13
5
5
6
6
7
2
1
14
6
4
4
6
5
2
3
15
7
7
7
5
6
2
3
16
6
4
6
3
6
1
3
17
6
2
3
4
1
1
3
18
6
4
3
3
6
2
4
19
7
4
4
3
6
2
3
20
7
5
6
6
5
2
3
21
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
22
4
6
4
4
5
1
4
23
6
5
7
6
7
1
4
24
7
2
5
3
6
2
3
25
1
6
1
6
5
1
3
26
6
6
5
6
7
2
3
27
2
3
2
4
3
1
3
28
5
5
4
7
4
1
3
29
6
6
6
5
6
1
3
30
5
5
7
7
7
1
3
31
6
4
2
3
5
2
3
32
5
5
4
4
5
1
3
33
6
7
6
6
6
2
3
34
7
7
7
5
7
2
3
35
7
6
5
5
6
2
3
36
7
6
7
2
7
2
3
37
6
6
3
5
6
1
3
38
7
7
7
7
4
2
3
39
3
5
5
7
4
1
4
40
7
4
7
7
7
2
4
41
7
4
7
7
7
2
2
1
2
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
AA
5
5
3
6
6
6
5
6
7
6
1
7
7
7
6
6
4
4
3
4
5
2
7
3
3
7
5
2
3
7
7
4
4
7
5
1
2
5
1
7
2
4
3
1
4
7
5
3
6
7
7
4
1
1
5
1
7
7
2
7
7
3
3
7
7
3
5
3
6
7
7
2
1
5
3
3
5
5
1
3
5
7
6
5
2
6
6
7
3
5
5
4
5
4
3
2
7
4
5
3
4
6
3
3
4
3
5
5
3
4
4
7
7
6
5
6
1
1
1
4
3
6
1
4
5
3
5
7
6
3
7
7
2
5
2
6
4
7
4
2
2
1
5
4
2
6
3
3
4
1
4
1
7
2
2
1
1
4
6
2
3
7
2
2
7
4
7
5
5
7
5
7
6
2
5
3
6
5
5
7
2
5
5
4
6
6
2
7
3
3
1
2
7
7
7
7
2
7
5
3
7
4
3
4
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
4
4
3
3
4
4
2
2
1
2
3
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
4
1
4
1
4
4
4
1
4
1
4
2
1
3
2
3
4
1
2
1
1
2
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
AA
3
7
2
2
3
4
1
3
5
3
7
2
7
7
3
1
7
7
7
3
7
7
6
6
5
5
6
4
6
4
5
7
6
7
4
7
4
7
5
7
7
4
7
1
4
4
7
1
1
4
6
6
2
4
3
7
1
7
6
6
1
6
5
4
2
3
6
7
4
7
7
6
7
6
7
3
6
1
6
7
5
7
4
3
2
3
7
5
2
2
2
4
2
2
5
4
3
6
7
6
6
1
6
3
6
5
4
6
5
7
5
6
6
7
6
5
6
7
7
7
6
7
6
2
3
7
4
3
7
6
6
3
4
4
6
1
4
2
2
6
6
7
1
6
6
5
5
5
7
6
6
5
7
6
7
6
5
4
7
2
7
7
6
5
3
2
3
1
5
2
4
6
6
6
4
6
4
5
7
1
7
6
6
4
6
6
7
5
7
5
6
7
6
1
6
5
6
4
6
5
7
4
7
6
6
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
3
4
3
1
3
2
3
4
4
3
2
3
2
1
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
4
3
4
3
2
3
3
3
4
2
4
2
3
4
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
AA
7
6
7
7
3
6
7
7
4
5
6
6
5
5
5
3
5
6
5
6
6
7
5
1
7
5
7
5
7
4
7
7
5
6
7
7
5
7
5
6
5
4
6
3
4
1
5
6
7
7
5
1
7
4
6
7
7
6
6
7
5
3
4
6
7
1
7
6
6
3
6
7
5
4
5
6
7
7
6
1
6
4
7
6
7
4
7
7
3
6
7
6
7
4
7
6
4
5
5
7
4
1
5
3
7
7
5
7
6
6
2
4
5
7
7
7
5
4
6
6
4
5
7
6
4
6
7
6
6
2
7
5
6
4
7
7
5
5
7
3
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
4
4
1
4
4
4
2
4
3
3
4
2
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
2
4
2
4
4
2
3
2
AB
AC
AD
RESPMARI RESPHOUS RESPAGE
2
4
21
3
2
5
21
4
2
5
18
5
2
7
20
6
2
4
19
7
2
2
19
8
2
4
19
9
2
1
20
10
2
2
44
11
2
3
29
12
2
4
20
13
2
6
17
14
2
5
19
15
2
4
20
16
2
4
21
17
1
1
20
18
2
1
23
19
2
5
18
20
2
4
20
21
2
6
17
22
1
1
24
23
2
2
21
24
2
3
19
25
2
1
18
26
2
1
20
27
2
4
19
28
2
2
21
29
2
4
19
30
2
5
21
31
2
4
20
32
2
3
19
33
2
5
21
34
2
3
19
35
2
4
19
36
2
8
18
37
2
3
28
38
1
3
41
39
1
4
37
40
1
2
24
41
1
7
49
1
2
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
AB
AC
AD
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
1
6
3
3
4
1
4
6
1
5
1
7
5
5
6
5
4
3
6
7
7
1
1
3
6
1
2
5
6
2
7
6
1
4
7
2
7
2
5
37
24
22
40
46
32
36
70
21
46
40
66
49
80
38
32
68
64
18
35
66
20
52
27
46
30
25
36
28
64
38
69
44
28
69
55
45
27
66
38
45
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
AB
AC
AD
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
7
4
2
7
7
3
1
6
4
6
2
7
3
2
3
2
4
2
4
1
1
4
1
3
3
1
1
2
1
4
6
6
3
1
7
5
3
61
38
35
34
59
43
55
41
75
18
66
42
70
24
62
69
35
24
31
26
27
18
29
66
20
27
22
25
19
21
65
66
24
32
20
59
27
27
42
21
28
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
AB
AC
AD
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
5
4
5
2
4
4
1
4
5
4
4
1
6
2
2
1
3
7
3
6
3
6
28
26
36
53
61
25
31
50
35
70
22
25
21
23
39
33
37
18
33
21
65
22
31
53
36
57
33
44
Springdale Shopping Survey*
The major shopping areas in the community of Springdale include Springdale Mall, West Mall, and the downtown
area on Main Street. A telephone survey has been conducted to identify strengths and weaknesses of these areas
and to find out how they fit into the shopping activities of local residents. The 150 respondents were also asked to
provide information about themselves and their shopping habits. The data are provided in the file SHOPPING. The
variables in the survey were as follows:
A. How Often Respondent Shops at Each Area (Variables 1–3)
1.
Springdale Mall
2.
Downtown
3.
West Mall
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
6 or more times/wk.
4–5 times/wk.
2–3 times/wk.
1 time/wk.
2–4 times/mo.
0–1 times/mo.
B. How Much the Respondent Spends during a Trip to Each Area (Variables 4–6)
4.
Springdale Mall
5.
Downtown
6.
West Mall
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
7.
Springdale Mall
8.
Downtown
9.
West Mall
(5)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
(5)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
(5)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
$200 or more
$150–under $200
$100–under $150
$ 50–under $100
$ 25–under $50
$ 15–under $25
less than $15
C. General Attitude toward Each Shopping Area (Variables 7–9)
Like very much
Like
Neutral
Dislike
Dislike very much
D. Which Shopping Area Best Fits Each Description (Variables 10–17)
10. Easy to return/exchange goods
11. High quality of goods
12. Low prices
13. Good variety of sizes/styles
14. Sales staff helpful/friendly
15. Convenient shopping hours
16. Clean stores and surroundings
17. A lot of bargain sales
Springdale
Mall
Downtown
West
Mall
No
Opinion
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
E. Importance of Each Item in Respondent’s Choice of a Shopping Area (Variables 18–25)
Not
Important
18. Easy to return/exchange goods
19. High quality of goods
20. Low prices
21. Good variety of sizes/styles
22. Sales staff helpful/friendly
23. Convenient shopping hours
24. Clean stores and surroundings
25. A lot of bargain sales
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Very
Important
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(7)
(7)
(7)
(7)
(7)
(7)
(7)
(7)
F. Information aboutt the Respondent (Variables 26–30)
26. Gender: (1) = Male
(2) = Female
27. Number of years of school completed:
(1) = less than 8 years
(3) = 12–under 16 years
(2) = 8–under 12 years
(4) = 16 years or more
28. Marital status: (1) = Married (2) = Single or other
29. Number of people in household:
persons
30. Age:
years
Each respondent in this database is described by 30 variables. As an example of their interpretation, consider row number 1.
This corresponds to respondent number 1 and contains the following information.
Variable number 6 = 7. The
respondent usually spends less
than $15 when she
shops at West Mall.
Variable number 26 = 2. The
respondent is a female.
5556774441131111167765667232421
Variable number 1 = 5.
The respondent shops at Springdale Mall 2–4 times/month.
Variable number 19 = 7.
Respondent believes “high quality
of goods” is very important in
choosing a shopping area.
*Source: Materials for this case have been provided courtesy of The Archimedes Group, Indiana, PA. Data are based on actual responses
obtained to this subset of the questions included in the survey; town and mall identities have been disguised as well as a number of
responses were updated.

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