Statitics Lean Six Sigma Belts Practice Quiz

1. Which of the following options is the main reason that we should understand the Voice of theCustomer (VOC) at the start of the DMAIC project? *
( ) To ensure we can check that the process is stable
( ) To be sure that we understand problems with the process from our customer’s point of view
( ) To check that the process is stable and capable
( ) Customers do not know what they want so we need to educate them
2. What type of data should a Black Belt focus on collecting and analysing during DMAIC activities? *
( ) A Black Belt should not focus on any particular type of data. Many forms of measurements and
data can provide insights into root causes of problems
( ) Categorical data
( ) Attribute data
( )Variable (continuous data)
3. What is the first step in a Strategic Planning exercise (Hoshin Kanri) for an organisation?*
( ) Select and prioritize projects for the next 12 months.
( )Establish and agree on the Goals, Mission and Vision for the organization.
( )Understand the Voice of your Customer (VOC)
( ) elect and prioritize projects for the next 3 to 5 years.
4. If a given process is stable and has a Cp= 1.0 and Cpk = 1.0; which of the following improvement
approaches is most appropriate? *
( ) Move the mean to the center between the specification limits
( ) Centering and variation reduction
( ) Process stability (identify and eliminate special causes)
( ) Variation reduction
5. A process map is used to accomplish which of the following? *
A. Identify all the steps and decisions of a process in a diagrammatic form
B. Display a dynamic picture of process performance behavior
C. Focus attention on process problems in priority order
D. Diagram possible problem causes in a process
6. Which of the following statements best describes special cause variation?*
A. There are at least 8 rules that identify different conditions for Special
B. Special cause variation occurs only inside the control limits.
cause variation.
C. Special cause variation is present in every process
D. special cause variation is When any one data point is outside the control limits
7. Gauge R and R is a concept in Measurement System Analysis? Which one of the following is true
about Gauge R and R? *
A. Repeatability and Reproducibility are classified as ‘Accuracy’ errors
B. Repeatability variance and Reproducibility variance are added together during a Gauge R and R study
C. Reproducibility errors are when the same measurement is made more than once by the same person
but gets different results.
D. Repeatability errors are when different people measure same this get diff results
8. What is the probability that a sample Mean is within +/- 1.96 Standard Deviations of the population
Mean for a Normal Distribution? *
A. 175%
B. 47.5%
C. 95%
D. 30%
9. What is the Lean Principle action in the 5S approach, that deals with having those items needed
regularly at hand and those items need less regularly stored out of the way? *
( ) Sustaining
( ) Sorting
( ) Standardizing
( ) Shining
10. Which one of the following is the most effective means of reducing defects? *
( ) Design defect prevention and mistake proofing into the product and production process
( )Have each process consist of no more than five steps
( ) Training
( )Keep a Lean Six Sigma project going on the process at all times
11. Kaoru Ishikawa worked with quality professionals such as W.E. Deming to advance quality
management. Which of the following is a key principle promoted by Ishikawa and other quality
professionals? *
A. Cost cutting is the most important element of any process
B. Focus on Long Term quality improvement rather than short term cost improvement strategy cutting
and profit targets
C. Kaizen improvement strategy is enough to make any company
D. Management should be rewarded well even if performance is poor
12. Which statement describes an undesirable situation when implementing SPC?*
A. The Control Limits are wider than the customer specification limits
B. The Lower Control Limit for the R chart is equal to zero
C. A process is in Statistical Control before implementation of SPC
D. Attempt to use SPC for tracking transaction times at a warehouse
13. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a design technique that offers all of the following, except: *
A. Better mistake proofing
B. Repeats previous design strategies
C. Easier production (manufacturing)
D. Understanding the needs of the customer
14. Which relationships are depicted in a SIPOC diagram? *
A. Internal customers to external customers
B. Diversion to conversion
C. Raw materials to finished products
D. Suppliers through to customers
15. If a process has subgroups and continuous data which control chart is most preferable? *
A. Individual-Moving Range Chart
B. P Charts
C. Xbar-R Chart
D. EWMA Chart
16. Which chart is used to visualise the trend of long term variation of a process variable? *
A. Run Chart or Moving Average Chart
B. Histogram
C. Pareto Chart
D. Multi-Vari Chart
17. A Kanban is used as a signal for movement of raw materials, parts or finished goods. In which
direction does a Kanban signal typically move ? *
A. It moves from the Supplier to the Customer
B. it moves towards the customer of the process
C. It moves in the same direction as the Process Flow
D. it moves to the Supplier of the materials, parts or finished goods
19. Which statement is most correct about the Value Stream Map in Figure 1 (above)? *
A. Signal Kanbans are used to re-stock 3 of the Milling Supermarkets
B. Value-Added time is more than 10% of total Lead Time
C. The production control is decided locally at each process step
D. One delivery per week is made by Suppliers 1 and 2
20. Which statement is most correct about the Value Stream Map in Figure 1 (above)? *
Non-Value-Added time is less than 95%.
B. The production control receives messages from customers and
suppliers by road transport.
C. The focus for improvement should be Operation C because it has the longest Cycle Time (C/T).
D. The focus for improvement should be Operation C because it has the
longest change Over Time (C/O) and the longest Cycle Time (C/T) and lowest Uptime.
21. According to the Central Limit Theorem, regardless of the population from which data is
drawn, the sampling distribution of the mean when sufficiently large is: *
( ) Skewed towards the outliers
( ) Normally distributed
( ) Skewed towards the standard deviation
( ) Abnormally distributed
22. Every DMAIC project should either create or update a Control Plan for the improved process. At
what time can the Control Plan be closed? *
( ) After the project has been presented at the recognition event
( ) Never, a Control Plan is a living document and is continuously updated for a process.
( ) As soon as the Champion signs off
( ) Within 30 days of the Lss project review team meeting
23. A Black Belt practitioner constructs a control chart to display a process mean and control limits.
On the chart what does the acronym ‘LCL
represent? *
( ) Lower cycle limit
( )Lower cycle length
( )Lower control limit
( ) Lower control length
24. Process capability (Cp) describes a process, often in a stable manufacturing environment, that
leads to the production of a product that conforms to client and design specifications. An ideal
process will have a Cp value: *
( ) Equal to one
( )Greater than one
( ) Less than one
( ) Within one standard deviation of mean
25. When analysing a data set, we frequently graph one variable against another using a Scatter
Graph. If the Correlation Coefficient is -0.95 how are the two-variables correlated?
( ) Strong Negative
( )Weak Positive
( ) Weak Negative
( ) Strong Positive
A. 26. Which of the control charts helps us to understand the amount of variation within subgroups
of continuous data? *
A. R-chart
B. Y-chart
C. C-chart
D. P-chart
27. Which of the following is not a type of hypothesis test? *
A. p-test
B. F-test
D. T-test
28. What type of improvement is necessary for ‘World Class’ Operational Excellence? *
A. Improvement of Management skills
B. Process Improvement + Culture Improvement + Leadership+ Improvement
C. Improvement of Worker skills
D. Process Improvement only
29. A Black Belt will sometimes do an experiment referred to as an OFAT, which stands for *
A. One Factor at a Time
B. Ordinary Fractional Approach Technique
C. Opposite Factors Affect Technique
D. Only a Few Are Tested
30. How does Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) achieve waste reduction in a Lean process ? *
A. Separation of Internal and External’ activities to reduce the waste of
B. Reduction of motion during a change Over waiting
C. All of the above
D. Poka Yoke devices to prevent mistakes being made
31. Which of the following steps is NOT a component of the decision-making process in business or
manufacturing? *
( ) Evaluating the performance of the last project
( ) Adopting decision criteria
( ) Listing uncertain events ( risks )
( ) Listing alternative courses of action
32. Which one of the following is ideal for informal and quick communication within a team that is
spread across different countries? *
( ) Group meeting
( ) PowerPoint Presentations
( ) Text messages (SMS or WhatsApp)
( ) E-mail
33. Which one of the following is an inventive methodology for problem-solving?*
34. The experimental response data varied from what a Black Belt had predicted it would be.
What could be used as a measure of this variation? *
A. Confounded data
B. Gap Analysis
C. Inefficiency of estimates
D. Sum of Squares of the Residuals
35. For a normal distribution, four standard deviations on each side of the mean would include
approximately what percentage of the total population?
A. 99,99%
B. 95 00%
C. 99.75%
D. 99.25%
36. Data from a process output resides within the control limits. What is the best interpretation
of this?
A. The process is making a profit
B. The process is efficient
C. The process is stable
D. The process is meeting customer expectation
37. What conclusions can be made from the graphs shown in Figure 2 (below)? *
( ) The largest residual error is more than 5% of the total variation therefore this regression is not
statistically significant.
( )These graphs show us nothing which is useful
( ) The Residual errors show unusual observations therefore special care should be taken in using
this regression model.
( ) The Residual Errors in this Regression analysis are sufficiently
normally distributed for the regression to be used as a model for the
38. What conclusions can be made from the graphs shown in Figure 2 (above)? *
( ) The largest residual error is more than 10% of the total variation therefore this regression is not
statistically significant.
( ) The Residual errors show points out of control
( ) These graphs show nothing that would suggest not to use the regression model.
( ) The Residual Errors in this Regression analysis are too skewed and so
the regression is not valid.
39. What conclusions can be made from the 4 fitted-line plots shown in Figure 3(below)? *
( ) All the relationships shown would be better modelled using non-linear
( ) The graph of y4 vs ×4 shows that the value of y4 has a wide variation regression analysis
when x4 = 8
( ) The graph of y1 vs x1 shows a “best-fit’ regression line which most closely models the actual
( ) The graph of y1 vs x1 shows the highest linear Correlation Coefficient of all 4 graphs
40. Which of the following is non-parametric Hypothesis test for comparing 2 samples of data? *
A. Chi-Square test
B. None
C. Kruskal-Wallis
D. Mann Whitney test
41. A Six Sigma tool that can graph more than one input on the same chart to look for the biggest
source of variation *
A. SIPOC Chart
B. Whisker Chart
C. Multi – Vari Chart
D. Box Plot Chart
42. Which metric helps a Black Belt to know how much product is being made “Right first time”? *
43. In a Linear Regression analysis, the ANOVA table shows that, F = 26.1, df = 3, p < .05 What can we say? * A. Model is significant with less than 5% Alpha risk B. Model is not significant and no better at predicting than simply using the mean scores C. Model is significant at 95% confidence with one predictor D. Model is significant with 5% confidence and has 3 predictors 44. What name would describe a data distribution that is not balanced, has one mode and a long tail on oneside ?* A. Weibull B. Gaussian C. skewed D. Bimodal 45. Chi square is a test of * A. Variation in a process B. Symmetry in a DOE C. Dependence or independence between categorical variables D. Degrees of Freedom 46. Minimum and maximum values, female and male groups, age designated ranges are all the above examples of what in a DOE ? * ( ) Blocks ( ) Levels ( ) Interactions ( ) Factors 47. To draw inferences about a sample population being studied by modelling patterns of data in a way that accounts for randomness and uncertainty in the observations is known as: ( ) Physical Modelling ( ) Sequential Inference ( ) Inferential Statistics ( ) Influential Analysis 48. Which of the following is an experimental design method used for optimization and improving the robustness of a design? * ( ) Regression Analysis ( ) Tolerance designs ( ) Systems design ( ) Response Surface method 49. You are producing a snack food that requires an adhesive label. The adhesive strength must be between 2.25 kg and 4.5 kg. You pull a sample of 100 labels and find a standard deviation of 44 kg. What is the potential process capability, Cp? * ( ) 0.852 ( ) 0.312 ( ) 1.420 ( ) 0.193 50. What role on a Lean Six Sigma team is most likely to define the business objectives of the project? * ( ) Sponsor or Process Owner ( ) Black Belt ( ) Customer ( ) Green Belt 51. When two Inputs have a significant impact on the Output together yet have little impact on their own, this is called a________: ( ) Compound effect ( ) Interaction effect ( ) Main effect ( ) Mixture 52. When the measurement method used creates a difference between the measured value and the true value, the difference is known as * ( ) accuracy ( ) bias ( ) precision ( ) residual 53. Cross-functional teams typically * ( ) Are comprised of natural work teams ( ) Have narrow skill sets and expertise ( ) Elect their own leaders ( ) Are comprised of subject matter experts and representatives from multiple departments or areas 54. There is both Practical and_________ Significance to consider during a Hypothesis Test. * ( ) Statistical ( ) Non-practical ( ) Impractical ( ) Usable 55. Which chart would you use to measure plot values such as weight, speed or volume? * ( ) Any of the above could be used depending on subgroup size ( ) x bar s chart ( ) I chart ( ) x bar R chart 56. When should you use the I-chart? * ( ) Subgroup size < 10 ( ) Subgroup size == 10 ( ) Subgroup size = 1 ( ) Between-group variation 57. Which of the following shapes is used to present a termination point in a flowchart? * ( ) Oval ( ) ArrOW ( ) Rectangle ( ) Diamond 58. The technique of minimizing the sum of squared differences between observed and predicted values derived from a regression model is called: * ( ) Structural equation modelling ( )Linear interpolation ( ) Method of determination ( ) Method of least squares 59. Which of the following is the best definition of Quality in a process? * ( ) Adaptability: How well you can be effective and efficient in the face of change ( ) Efficiency: the ability to be effective at the least cost ( ) How well the output meets the customer's needs and expectations ( ) Profitability: the amount of positive return on the investment of process 60. The central limit theorem helps us to understand the amount of _____________ we are taking to when using sampling statistics to estimate population parameters. ( ) Reason ( ) Route ( ) Analysis ( ) Risk 61. Binary data is an example of which category of data ? * ( ) Quantitative Data ( ) Variable Data ( ) Continuous Data ( ) Attribute Data 62. If the specification limits are wider than the control limits, then * ( ) The process is capable ( ) The specification limits replace the control limits on the chart ( ) The process capability index is greater than 1.0 ( ) None of the above 63. Hypothesis Tests help us to decide whether to reject the _________ based on the result of the Pvalues * ( ) Measurement error ( ) Null Hypothesis ( ) Alpha Risk ( ) Alternative hypothesis 64. Which one of these is part of the Deming PDCA' cycle? * ( ) Process inputs ( ) Process controls ( ) Plan ( ) Process feedback 65. The house of quality is a key component of which technique? ( ) CTQ ( ) Testing ( ) Root cause analysis ( ) Quality Functional Deployment 66. Dividing the standard deviation of a population by the square-root of a sample size gives us what? * ( ) Mean Deviation ( ) Mean Error ( ) Standard Error of the Mean ( )Mean Spread 67. Which of the following is not a key component of measurement system? * ( ) Historical data ( ) Environment ( ) Appraiser / Operator ( ) Procedure 68. MSA can be used in supply chain management to assess supplier performance by quantifying_______ ( ) Ease to work with ( ) Supplier's quality ( ) All ( ) Data entry accuracy 69. Which of the following is used to test the significance for the analysis of a Contingency Table? * ( ) Chi Square Test ( ) F Test ( ) Acid Test ( ) T Test 70. Calculate the number of trials (runs), for an experiment with six factors and 2-levels per factor if it is designed as a half-fractional factorial design. * ( )6 ( ) 18 ( ) 32 ( ) 64 71. Which of the following is not true for frequency distribution of data? * ( ) Horizontal line across the tops of all bars suggest a uniform distribution ( ) Isolated values at extreme ends suggest outliers ( ) More values at one end suggest negative or positive skewness ( )Grouping of most values near the center suggests a bimodal distribution 72. What is The Median? * ( ) Middle value in a series of numbers arranged in order of size ( ) Arithmetic average of the data set ( ) The largest value in data set ( ) Most frequently found value 73. Contingency Tables are used to perform which of these functions? * ( ) Contrast the Outliers under the tail ( ) Compare more than two sample proportions with each other ( ) Illustrate one-tail proportions ( ) Analyze the "what if" scenario 74. Which of the following is not prescribed in a project charter? * ( ) Work Tasks ( ) Start Date ( ) Stakeholders („) Project Manager / Green Belt 75. What is the best method to determine the coefficients in the equation Y = mx + c if we have data for values of x and corresponding values of Y? * ( ) Pareto Analysis ( ) T-test ( ) Chi-square test ( ) Regression analysis 76. Which Lean Six Sigma tool depends on expert opinion rather than objective data ? * ( ) DOE ( ) Fish-bone diagram ( ) Multi-Vari charts ( ) Box Plot 77. Statistical process control (SPC) is best defined as the use of * ( ) Inputs to control critical and complex processes ( ) Statistical methods to understand and control a process ( ) Pareto charts to understand and control a process ( ) Statistical methods to identify and remove manufacturing errors 78. Which of the following is not a prerequisite for the define phase of the Lean Six Sigma project ? * ( ) Define goal using goal statement ( ) Define the solutions to the problem ( ) Define problem using problem statement ( ) Define customer and their requirements 79. Which kind of data would you use on the horizontal axis of a Pareto chart ? * ( ) Positional ( ) Sample numbers ( ) Categorical data ( ) Length 80. The correlation coefficient is a calculated metric___________ ( ) To show the strength of the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variable ( ) To show a curvilinear pattern ( ) To illustrate a reduced effect size ( ) Enhance the p-value 81. When is the development of a formal communication plan justified? * ( ) Before selecting the project ( ) Large projects or teams with geographical barriers ( ) Every time a team is initiated ( ) when the team has a been together for several months 82. A Hypothesis test decision is made based on the calculated value of ___________ ( ) The P-value ( ) The Standard Deviation ( ) The special cause variation ( ) The sum of squares 83. When it is observed that 20 per cent of the inputs cause 80 per cent of the output variation, the critical X's are identified using which of the fallowing? * ( ) Fishbone Diagram ( ) FMEA ( ) Pareto Chart ( ) Affinity Diagram 84. Which of the following is an example of mistake-proofing?* ( ) Using color coding as an error signal ( ) Using an X Bar - R chart to prevent errors ( ) Using 100% inspection to detect and contain defects ( ) Having the team that created the errors repair them 85. Which of the following statements is correct about use of a weighted criteria matrix such as 'House of Quality'? * ( ) It helps to define the ways in which ideas influence each other ( ) it helps the team to prioritize and put things in order of importance ( ) It is a means of organizing different ideas generated in brainstorming sessions ( ) It is a combination of tree diagram and interrelationship diagrams 86. When a control plan reveals that the process is moving out of the customer specification, then which part of the control plan should be referred to in order to identify the necessary actions to be taken? * ( ) Quality Plan ( ) Readjustment plan ( ) Variance Tracking ( ) Response Plan 87. Inferential Statistics is based on the _____________ ( ) Central Limit Theorem ( ) Alpha Risk ( ) T-Distribution ( ) Beta Risk 88. Which chart would you use while investigating variation in shaft diameters using 5 samples in each subgroup made by same machine? * ( ) x bar chart ( ) P chart ( ) C chart ( ) Run chart 89. When the scattering of points around a regression line decreases, what happens to the RSquared term? * ( ) Becomes larger ( ) Becomes smaller ( ) Approaches a value of 0 ( ) Approaches a value of -1 90. What does S mean in XBar-S chart? * ( ) Sample size ( ) Standard deviation ( ) Population size ( ) Range 91. Which of the following variables influences the shape of a normal distribution? * ( ) Variance ( ) Mean ( ) Median ( ) Mode 92. What is the definition of Nuisance or Noise factors? * ( ) Factors which are of interest to you in your experiment, and that you would want to manipulate in order to test your hypothesis ( ) Factors that can't be controlled, but they can be recognized. ( ) Factors that you can specify and set yourself ( ) Factors that aren't of interest to you for your experiment. 93. Which Design of Experiments ( DOE ) methods uses Orthogonal Matrix ( Arrays ) ? * ( ) Quality Function Deployment (QFD) ( ) Taguchi Designs ( ) Ishikawa Designs ( ) TAG Heuer Designs 94. There are two basic levels of Factorial Design. Name the basic level of Factorial Design that includes at least one trial for some, but not all, possible combination of factors and levels. * ( ) Fractional Factorial ( ) Full Factorial ( ) Single Factorial ( ) Half Factorial 95. Which statement is most correct about the Capability Analysis shown in Figure 4 (below)? ( )The capability of this process would not be acceptable for the customers of most manufacturing companies ( ) The performance of this process is observed to be zero ( ) The capability of this process would be acceptable for the customers of most manufacturing companies ( )The within subgroup capability for this process is worse than the overall capability 96. Which statement is most correct about the ANOVA Analysis shown in Figure 5 (below)? Figure 5:* ( ) The study suggest that R&R measurement variation is more than 10% of total variation ( ) There were 9 parts used for measurement in this Gage R&R study ( ) The variation of measurements between parts was statistically significant in this study ( ) Operator-to-Operator measurement variation was that largest source of variation in this study 97. The first phase of any Lean Six Sigma project is: * ( ) A Kaizen event ( ) Focused on measuring the current performance or the baseline of the process ( ) Focused on finding the root cause of the problem using a Pareto Chart ( ) Focused on understanding the problem, creation of the Project Charter and understanding the needs of the customers of the process 98. A Black Belt wants to measure a process ability to meet customer specifications. Which of the following indicators is the most appropriate? * ( ) Correlation ( ) Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) ( ) cpk ( ) Cycle times 99. For the Define phase of a Lean Six Sigma Project which of the following are expected outputs: * ( )Hypothesis Testing ( ) Standard Operating procedures ( ) I Control limits ( ) Business case and Project charter 100. If a Black Belt wants to start to understanding the flow of a process, which of the following tools is he/she most likely to use? ( ) Gage R&R ( )DOE ( ) SIPOC ( ) Hypothesis Testing 101. In a Lean process what is the best definition of waste'? * ( ) None of the above ( ) Waste is any step in the process which is not recognized by the Customer as adding value to the product or service they receive ( ) Waste is any step in the process which is not recognized by the CEO as adding value to the product or service ( ) Something that should be reduced to improve the quality of the product or service 102. Which of the following activities is normally performed during the Measure phase of a Lean Six Sigma Project? * ( ) Hypothesis testing ( ) Translation of Voice of the Customer (VOC) into Critical to Quality requirements (CTQ's) ( ) Translation of Voice of the Customer (VOC) into Control limits ( ) As-Is Value Stream Mapping 103. One of the primary objectives of a control chart is to: ( ) Display the presence of Special causes of variation in the process ( ) Translate the Voice of the Customer (VOC) into Critical to Quality requirements (CTQ's) ( ) Identify the root cause which makes the process out of control ( ) Ensure all non-value add activities have been eliminated 104. A Black Belt discovered that the CTQ characteristic of the output follows a Normal Distribution. Which of the following is likely to be the most appropriate measure of central tendency for the CTQ characteristic? * ( ) Range ( ) Standard Deviation ( ) Mean ( ) Median 105. An operational excellence team is engaged in implementing 5S in a new laboratory. Which of the following is likely to be included in this project? * ( ) Make sure every item in the area is needed for the work of the area ( ) Label locations for all items ( ) Make sure every item in the bench is in clean and in "like new" condition ( ) All of the above 106. The best definition of a Kanban for a Lean improvement is: * ( ) An important tool mainly aimed at reducing process variation ( ) A Japanese word for efficiency of a production system ( ) A card used when the process is not capable ( ) A visualization tool which enables reduction of WiP and just-in-time production 107. Which of the following data type is nominal data? * ( ) Glucose level in a bioreactor monitored over 12 months ( ) Diameters (in mm) of tablets for migraine ( ) Defect types in inhalers for asthma ( ) Pain score (1-10) for spinal injury patients 108. In Lean terms, the 8 Wastes (or Muda) are? * ( ) Suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, customers, Motion, Waiting, Defects ( ) Defects, Waiting, Sorting, Cleaning, Standardizing, Transportation, Over- Processing and Non-Utilized Talent ( ) Defects, Motion, Defects, Variability, Unsafe, Rework, Long Cycle Time and Short Takt Time ( ) Defects, Waiting, Overproduction, Inventory, Motion, Transportation Over-Processing and Non-Utilized Talent / Skills 109. A Black Belt needs to identify the most common causes which caused batch failures in the past 12 months. Which of the following tools he/she is more likely to use: * ( ) Gantt Chart ( ) Pareto Chart ( ) SIPOC ( ) Hypothesis testing 110. A Black Belt would like to reduce process variation which is affecting one of the Critical to Quality requirements (CTQ's). A good starting point to identify the root cause would be to use a: * ( ) Poka Yoke ( ) Fishbone Diagram ( ) Gantt Chart ( ) Design of Experiment 111. A Fishbone Diagram (or Ishikawa) is a very common tool to group potential causes of a problem into 6 categories: * ( ) Machine, Man, Mother Nature, Materials, Methods, Measurements ( ) Sort, set in order, shine, standardize and sustain ( ) None of the above ( ) Median, Mean, Man, Measurements, Methods, Machine 112. According to the Central Limit Theorem, regardless of the population from which data is drawn, the sampling distribution of the mean when sufficiently large is: * ( ) Normally distributed ( ) Always skewed left ( ) Always skewed-right ( ) Weibull 113. Which of the following data will likely follow a Poison distribution? * ( ) The number of defects produced by a production line per week ( ) The percentage of defective items in a production plant ( ) The weight (in g) of 10000 tablets of paracetamol ( ) All the above 114. A Box plot is commonly used to: * ( ) Test if data are normally distributed ( ) Eliminate common causes of variation in the process ( ) Enable a Just-in-time production system ( ) Display the distribution of the data and it includes median, first and third quartiles 115. Scatter lots are used to: * ( ) Identify defects in the any production lines ( ) Quantify the process ability to meet customer specifications ( ) Quantify the impact of a Lean Six Sigma project during the Define Phase ( ) Identify the relationship between two variables (X and Y) 116. During visual inspection of IV bags, five critical to quality attributes are inspected. When 100 IV bags were inspected, 4 defects were detected What is the DPMO for this process? * ( ) 8000 ( ) 2349 ( ) 3200 ( ) 2000 117. In order to meet customer demand, a Black Belt should try to make sure that: * ( ) Takt time is equal to cycle time ( ) Takt time is negligible compared to cycle time ( ) Cycle time is half of takt time ( ) Takt time is higher than cycle time 118. One of the main principles of Lean Manufacturing is: ( ) Making sure product design is aligned with company's strategy ( ) Using small lot( batch) sizes to increase the flexibility and flow of a process ( ) Exploring ways to maximize value in the eyes of the CEO ( ) implementing a "push" system to match customer demand 119. What is the Cycle Time, in seconds, for a process having a Throughput of 60 units per hour? * ( ) 1200 ( ) 2400 ( ) 211 ( ) 60 120. The ability of an optical density reader to measure optical density of samples consistently every time the measurement is made is referred to as: * ( ) Linearity ( ) Repeatability ( ) Bias ( ) Reproducibility 121. One purpose of Measurement System Analysis is to: * ( ) Display when the measurements are out of control ( ) Identify the presence of special causes of variation in the measurements ( ) Quantify the variation introduced by the measurement system ( ) Translation of Voice of the Customer (VOC) into Critical to Quality requirements (CTO's) 122. If a measurement system is accurate but not precise: * ( ) The measurement system should be calibrated to minimize bias ( ) it returns the same value every time a measurement is made by the same operator ( ) It returns the same value every time a measurement is made by the machine ( ) The difference between the observed average of the measurements and the true value is small 123. Which of the following could be classified as common cause variation? * ( ) None of the above ( ) Sudden change in glucose level in a bioreactor due to sensor breakdown ( ) Increased variation due to unexpected increase in the pH of the solution ( ) Random small changes in a Critical-to-Quality attribute of the product due to small random variations in the humidity of the air in the factory. 124. The general reason for sampling is: ( ) None of the above ( ) To draw conclusions about populations by analysing the samples ( ) Identify the presence of special causes of variation in the process ( ) Display when the process is out of control 125. The mean of a sample is: ( ) Never a good estimate of the true population mean ( ) Equal to the population mean divided by the sample size n ( ) Used to estimate the true population mean with a defined confidence level ( ) None of the above 126. Figure 6 shows the relationship between student Test Scores and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Which statement is most correct about the predicted IQ of a student to be who obtains a test score of 48? * ( ) With 100% confidence we can say the minimum IQ of the student is 87 ( ) With 95% confidence we can say the maximum 1Q of the student is 105 ( ) There is not enough information shown to draw conclusions about the IQ of the student ( ) The best estimate of the IQ of the student is approximately 100 based on the evidence shown 127. What statement is correct about the diagram shown in Figure 7 (below)? * ( ) The word Machinery' could be used instead of the word 'Equipment if desired ( ) This diagram is used as a brainstorming tool in the Define Phase of DMAIC ( ) The 6 categories used in this example are the only possible category options to use ( ) Name for this diagram is the Fishbone Diagram and it isused in the Improve phase of DMAIC 128. In order to reduce the width of a confidence interval for a population parameter one option would be to: * ( ) Create a Pareto Chart ( ) Re-training the operator ( Increase the sample size ( ) Decrease the sample size 129. In statistical terms, the Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) of a process is: * ( ) The percentage of output that a process with more than one step will produce defect free and without requiring any rework. ( ) The throughput of a process when it is keeping up with the takt time ( ) only achievable with a 6 Sigma level of quality ( ) None of the above 130. When 50 units were inspected, 8 defects in total were found. DU is then; * ( ) 4000 ( ) 0.32 ( ) 400 ( ) 0.16 131. A Black Belt is interested in testing a new measurement system. Which statistical tool he/she is more likely to use? * ( ) value stream Map ( ) SIPOC ( ) 5s ( ) Gage R&R 132. During the Measure Phase of a LSS project, Cpk is 1,33 and Cp= 1.33. What can we conclude? * ( ) The process is centered and capable ( ) The process is centered but not capable ( ) The process is out of control ( ) All units will be within customer specifications 133. Process capability index Cp is a function of both: * ( ) Precision and accuracy ( ) Customer specifications and process variability ( ) None of the above ( ) Mean and standard Deviation 134. When will the risk priority number (RPN) of an identified risk be changed in a FMEA ? * ( ) Every 6 months ( ) Every time the risk severity, probability of occurrence or detection of failures change ( )Every time the process variability or process throughput changes ( ) All the above 135. A Black Belt is interested in monitoring the number of defective batches of product per week. Which of the following distributions is likely to use? ( ) Binomial ( ) Poisson ( ) Normal ( ) Bimodal 136. A Black Belt is interested in monitoring and controlling the proportion of defective units in a batch. Which of the following probability distributions is the Black Belt likely to use? * ( ) Bimodal ( ) Binomial ( ) Weibull ( ) Poisson 137. Black Belt wants to calculate the 95 % confidence intervals for the average amount (in mg) of active ingredient in tablets of ibuprofen. A sample of 40 tablets yielded an average of 205.23 mg with a sample standard deviation of1.23. The Black Belt will be able to conclude that: ( ) The true average amount of ibuprofen in the lot is between 205.05 and 205.40 mg ( ) The true average amount of ibuprofen in the lot is between approximately 204.8 and 205.6 mg ( ) The process is not stable ( ) Cpk is lower than 1.33 138. Common risks when performing Hypothesis testing are denoted as: * ( ) Factors ( ) Alpha and Beta ( ) P-values ( ) None of the above 139. When performing Hypothesis testing, which of the following might represent a null hypothesis: ( ) None of the above ( ) P- values are inconclusive ( ) There is no difference between the two processes ( ) The old process is statistically different than the new one 140. ANOVA is commonly used to: * ( ) Compare less than three group mean averages ( ) Assess if data are normally distributed ( ) Compare the mean averages of three or more independent groups and test for statistical significance ( ) Compare two group medians 141. When performing hypothesis testing, a Type I error (False Positive ) would occur: * ( ) when the null hypothesis is true but is rejected ( ) When there is no difference between the two processes ( ) When the old process is statistically different than the first one ( ) When P-values are inconclusive 142. When performing hypothesis testing, a Type Il error (False Negative ) is: * ( ) None of the above ( ) Always higher than p-values ( ) Rejecting the null hypothesis when is true ( ) Accepting a null hypothesis when is false 143. When performing hypothesis testing, p-values represents: * ( ) The true capability of the process ( ) The probability that a change or difference occurred by chance ( ) The difference between the lowest and the highest value in your data ( ) None of the above 145. Hypothesis testing with attribute data normally require: * ( ) A number of samples equal to the degree of freedom ( ) For the data to be normally distributed ( ) A higher number of samples compared to hypothesis testing with continuous data ( ) None of the above 146. In which situation would you choose 'Attribute Agreement Analysis as a tool for your Measurement System Analysis (MSA) study? ( ) Assessment of human inspectors for accuracy and precision in visual inspection of products ( ) Assessment of a measurement device that uses lasers to measure the length of manufactured products ( ) Assessment of the precision of a digital thermometer for measuring temperature. ( ) Assessment of the accuracy of a digital scale (for measuring mass in Kilograms). 147. If a Black Belt reduces the alpha risk from .05 to 0.01: * ( ) The confidence level will also decrease ( ) The null hypothesis will be rejected if p-values are greater than 0,01 ( ) None of the above ( ) The null hypothesis will be rejected if p-values are lower than 0.05 148. The box plots in Figure 8 (below) show the distribution of marks in an English test and in a Maths test for a group of students. What is the highest mark in the English test? * ( ) 50 ( ) 35 ( ) 42 ( ) 44 149. The box plots in Figure 8 (below) show the distribution of marks in an English test and in a Maths test for a group of students. What is the Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) and the Median for the Maths scores? * ( ) IQR = 32 and Median=27 ( ) IQR = 13 and Median=27 ( ) IQR = 13 and Median =30 ( ) IQR = 17 and Median=38 150. A Black Belt is using the 5S approach to organize tools as shown in Figure 9 (below). This is applying the principle of 5S * ( ) Straightening / Set inplace ( ) Sustaining ( ) sorting ( ) sweeping

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