The Psychologic-Based Interior Design Of Housing
1, I made some changes of this paper so please use this draft to continue the work if
2, Please can you add some data or professional charts or something else to present
3，Here is an assessment criteria
1, Demonstrate critical understanding of historical and contemporary debates within interior and spatial design based on a coherent and detailed analysis of key aspects of practice and theory (Knowledge).
2, Carry out sustained, systematic critical/practical research, using relevant resources and appropriate methods of analysis, enquiry and experimentation, and demonstrating the distinction between your ideas and those of others (Enquiry).
3, Apply appropriate processes, skills and methods to referencing (Process).
4, Use effective communication and presentation skills appropriate to theoretical and practical outcomes in order to articulate complex ideas and arguments convincingly and clearly (Communication, Realisation).
I think we are missing: sustained, systematic critical/practical research and appropriate methods of analysis, enquiry and experimentation, and demonstrating the distinction between your ideas and those of others
4, you can improve what I marked, with your psychology knowledge. If it is hard for you to
write about art, then you left it for me, but please finish this paper before 21th ,06:59am in the
morning (American time) , so that I can have time to review and finish.
批注 [MOU1]: All the comments are my personal
opinions based on the Dissertation Handbook(which
I sent you in the beginning) and my tutors’
suggestions. You also can read the handbook and
have your own thoughts;(Some of the text I wrote
in the beginning are also wrong) I’ve sited and
highlighted the Dissertation handbook texts in
red, which must be revised. I hope these can help
you, so that we can write a good paper.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 2
The Psychology-Driven Housing Interior Design
Unit 10 History and theory 3 (Consolidation)
批注 [MOU2]: The title may require a bit of
deliberation, as it is mostly about how
psychology and architectural design interact.
identified and discussed key issues that relate to the
discipline (interior and spatial design)
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 3
PROBLEM： How to tap on psychological knowledge for effective and better housing
Psychology, architecture, interior design, wellbeing, housing
Contemporaneously, research suggests that people spend more than 70% of their lives
indoors. Thus, to ensure that people are more comfortable while indoors, modern architectural
sector primarily focuses on producing designers with the background and capability to
develop a comprehensive psychological intervention vision that accounts for all the design
parameters and identifying and accounting for all the considerations that are to be made
during the housing design. A critical architectural role is providing built environments
capable of sustaining its entire occupant’s psychological needs and well-being, a role that has
become critical in the modern era. Thus, this paper will offer an in-depth discussion on the
core psychological elements of interior housing design that interior designers can bring to
residents, and how these elements can be harnessed in the design of better, more comfortable
and enjoyable houses.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
1.1 Defining Interior Design 1.2 Definition of a ‘home’
1.3 Architectural Psychology and Interior Design
2. ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
2.1 History of Architectural Psychology
2.2 Architectural Examples of Applying Psychology
2.3 Housing Architecture
2.4 How to apply psychology to architectural design conception.
3. HUMANIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGY
3.1 What is Psychology
3.2 The Relationship Between Design and Psychology
3.3 How Psychology Reflected in Design
4. INTERIOR SPACE AND PSYCHOLOGY
4.1 The Effect of Indoor Light on People’s Mood
4.2 How does indoor air affect people
4.3 The effect of home colors on people’s mood
4.4 How to harness psychology to improve residents’ wellbeing
5. EXPERIMENT AND TEST
5.1 design of experiment
5.2 method and process
批注 [MOU3]: applied the appropriate historical and
critical perspective to the subject matter is required for this
批注 [MOU4]: Please can you change a few titles
to make the article more coherent.
批注 [MOU5]: •A Primary Sources must must be
included, It can be an experiment or questionnaire (like
“A record of the effects of interior design on the
psychology of subjects”) with your result. (It doesn’t
has to be a real result, can be fake)
批注 [MOU6]: APPENDICES is required
批注 [MOU7]: IMAGE SOURCES is required
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 5
1. Defining Interior Design
Although the term ‘interior design’ is very common, a more definitive definition for the
concept is yet to be created. Thus, in this paper, the working definition for the term is that it is
the art and science involved in enhancing a building’s and structures’ interior spaces. The
main of interior design of housing is providing a healthier and aesthetically pleasing
environment for its actual, expected, probable or imagined users. Additionally, as a discipline,
interior design entails studying the art and science of interior design. Accordingly, interior
designers are people who plan, research, manage and coordinates interior design projects
aimed at enhancing the buildings’ and structures’ interior spaces.
Contemporaneously, an interior spaces’ foundation has become a fundamental concept for
exploration and understanding as this knowledge is critical to helping and better equipping
users to harness the spaces that are available for them. Usually, even though interior designers
may have the will and resources to change these available interior spaces, effectively
achieving such a resolve and desire is often hard. A primary reason for this challenge in
interior design is that designers are often limited to working within the applicable rooms’ or
spaces’ physical confines and boundaries. To fill in this void, modern designers are
increasingly relying on light, color and patterns. First, natural or artificial light is increasingly
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 6
becoming one of the most critical aspects of any spatial designs since other elements would
not be able satisfactorily achieve their full architectural design function without light. Mood
lighting, accent lighting and task lighting are the major categories of lighting used in the
architectural field. Interior designers use mood lighting to add ambience, accent lighting to
emphasize objects and task lighting to define purpose.
Secondly, color is increasingly become an extreme element available for interior designers
to master and harness for their trade. When properly leveraged, color can help designers to
define unity, create mood and alter how users of a space or room perceive its size.
Additionally, when combined with light and color, patterns provide benefits offered by
texture in that it can significantly add a visual appeal to any space where it is used.
Essentially, modern designers create patterns in rooms by using repetitive designs, and can be
found on many of the accessories that are used in modern houses, including fabrics, rugs, soft
furnishings, and wallpaper. Furthermore, there are different types of patterns, including in
terms of their stripes, prints, motifs, and prints (organic, pictorial and geometric).
2. Definition of a ‘home’
The term used to describe a pattern of activity and peoples’ role in such activities and in a
particular environment is domesticity. Additionally, the term also describes a home or family
life, especially when pertaining to the quality or state if being domestic or domesticated.
Whereas any form of domestic inhabitation and physical access are critical approaches used
by people to connect to their homes, it is also apparent that psychological ideas and
connections are equally profound.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 7
According to Clare Cooper, a psychologist and architect drawing from psychoanalyst Carl
Jung’s work, a home is a shared archetypal experience that enables people to express their
experiences, perspectives, ideas and emotions through symbolic languages. His definition is
strongly based on Carl Jung’s ideas that home encompasses an amalgamation of a strong
tower and sheltering cavern. For instance, Clare Cooper relies on Carl Jung’s symbolic
interpretation of homes to explore people’s desires in their homes and the impact of these
desires on the people’s psychic elements.
Additionally, Clare Cooper argues that 85% of Americans value single-family residences as
the ideal residence type because she is definitively convinced that such a residence type meets
the idea of an ideal home as based on an expression of the “separate, unique, private, and
protected” family unit. Furthermore, she observes that the people’s psychic desires are
normally evident at the social level; both in suburban housing’s cultural patterns and in the
way people describe the concept of a home. Unfortunately, she significantly questions the
sustainability of these attitude-based approaches demonstrated by people (Section 5:
Meanings of Home – The People, Place, and Space Reader, 2014)
Essentially, our existence is significantly influenced by our experiences of the places where
we live in during our life in various levels. Of course, our home is one of the places that
significantly impact our existence. Based on Hayward’s clarification, the concept of home
suggests the connotation of behavior, customization, continuity, privacy, personal identity,
social network, and above all, family. On his part, Smith argues that the concept of home is
also a multi-faceted concept that concurrently connotes to people the feeling of physical
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 8
environment, a place in which they can depend on and use to satisfy their personal needs, and
as a social domain. Accordingly, there are five primary attributes that can be used to
differentiate the concept of home and the more neutral concept of house. First, a home is a
crucial presentation point of the social life and its residents’ relationships. Secondly, a home
represents its inhabitant’s primary territory. Thus, as a private territory for the inhabitant, the
latter is entitled to an unequivocal and exclusive control over their homes.
Third, homes offer their owners a psycho-emotional sense and feeling of continuity. The
sense of continuity is related to the sensation of belonging, stability and safety – making it to
be the most important attribute of home amongst children and the young people. Fourth,
peculiarity is one of the most essential attributes about homes. Cognizant of this fact, Altman
posits that home helps people define their Self as it is one of the most critical promoters of
social interactions’ mastery within the precise physical spaces. Again, according to Sermon, a
home guarantees people a space to rest and recharge their psycho-physical energies. Finally, a
home is a place where people can express themselves without too much worrying.
According to Csikszentmihalyi and Rothberg-Halton, homes are part and parcel of the
identity of its owner. This is because people try to express themselves via the environment’s
and related object’s personalization in their homes; and thus, displaying a form of self-
presentation and self-representation. In retrospect, all the five main qualities – even though
they are largely based on assumptions – make homes a friendly and comfortable place, and
ensure that its inhabitants experience and feel satisfaction and comfort. However, given these
assumptions, there are several interesting questions that a person would want to ask and
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 9
explore about what they consider suitable attributes of home. One of these essential questions
revolves around the reasons why we prefer our homes to others’.
Specifically, have been various researches within the environmental psychology on the
relationship between human behavior and existence and the human environment, including
the related physical setting and surrounding from as early as the 1970s. Many researchers in
the fields of environmental psychology and architecture and design have been exploring some
of the impacts of specific environmental factors e.g. landscapes, natural environments, and
cities and neighborhoods on socio-psycho-emotional constructs like sense of safety and stress,
amongst others. Unfortunately, even though these previous researchers also attempted to
consider housing places, they are often limited more general dwelling places and specific
residential zones, i.e., their scope or subjects do not exactly cover the concept of homes. It is
only until recently when researchers from the field of psychology engaged were engaged in a
strong partnership with those from the field of architecture and design to explore the
Fortunately, the result of this strong partnership is a deeper analysis of how individuals
experiences (at both the emotional and cognitive levels), their presence and interaction with
the physical environment (e.g. waiting rooms, hospital rooms, shops, etc.), and the
environment concept can be made to exceed their boundaries using online backgrounds and
virtual places. However, according to Colombo, Laddaga and Antonietti (2015), an organized
and detailed research exploring the emotional and cognitive effects of the representation and
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 10
presentation of the meaning of a ‘‘home’’, rather than a ‘‘house’’, from the perspective of
both the design- and psychology-related approaches, is yet to be conducted.
3. Architectural Psychology and Interior Design
2.1 History of Architectural Psychology
In essence, architecture encompasses a type of human expression that portrays the
individual designers’ or collective designers’ psyche. Carl Jung, the father of psychoanalysis
(analytical psychology), defines a building architecture as the human psyche’s structural
diagram that both conceives and creates. In the 2016 publication Architectural Psychology
posits that, indeed, the fields of art and architecture provide a vehicle and platform through
which human beings can use to convey their deepest unconscious thoughts.
Just a few decades ago, most architects and their allied construction companies saw it
necessary to consult psychologists in their designing process to ensure the optimal design that
respects human’s psychological conceptions of the build structures and environments.
Unfortunately, most of the designers and construction companies later lost interest in or
became tired with having to apply psychology in engineering globally. Thus, it has become
extremely rare finding psychologists working together with architects and designers in the
design and engineering process. Furthermore, architects and designers also seldom engage in
the end-user psyche. Even though the architects and designers often do consider several
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 11
human and humanistic elements during the design process of the build environment, these
building designs rarely directly engage psychological knowledge and conceptions.
The implication is that people do not always live or reside within these particular
environments – be it at home, shopping centers, public spaces, etc. – happily, voluntarily and/
or comfortably. Unfortunately, it is often an extremely difficult and complex process to
determine the whether an environment is or would be preferable, soothing and/ or pleasant to
the [prospective] users. Consequently, psychology and psychologists can significantly help
designers and constructors to accomplish this knowledge-gap.
Culture, architecture, art and psychology are directly related to each other. In essence,
when artistic elements like size, space, color, light and patterns are appropriately used, they
can significantly help to enlighten the atmosphere within a space. For instance, users and
inhabitants of a house usually report finding that rooms whose walls are tiled or colored in
white [tiles] usually make them feel light, and make the spaces brighter and more pleasurable
to be inside them. Based on this background information, it would be necessary to define
what architectural psychology is or entails.
As a discipline or field of study, architectural psychology is the branch of ecological or
environmental psychology that studies how humans interact with their environment, and the
relationship between the two, including in terms of living requirement, living satisfaction,
orientation behavior and spatial perception. The term architecture describes a sense of space
and support to all human activities’ forms if and when used appropriately. It also provides
delight, service and firmness. Additionally, the architectural psychology field is a very
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 12
important multidisciplinary field that bridges the traditional fields of domestic planning,
architecture, engineering and psychology, amongst others to help people design better living
spaces and buildings and comfortable build environments to ensure a better and more
enjoyable occupation. By exploring and understanding more about how people conceive of
and experience the built environment forms, one can be able to take up a more occupant-
centered perspective towards their designing and engineering processes, and ultimately, lead
to more innovative architectural designs.
According to a 2011 research article by Mastandrea and colleagues published by the
American psychiatrists’ association journal APA SpyNet, the environment, which is a product
of human beings’ activity and interaction, has a significant reciprocal impact on human
being’s life, living and activity. In the article ‘‘Architectural Lessons from Environmental
Psychology: The Case of Biophilic Architecture’’, Joyce (2007) reviewed findings research
survey drawn from the environmental psychology field to determine the relationship between
the environment and human beings, and the impact of the former on human’s functioning and
psycho-emotional wellbeing. The result suggests that human being have an aesthetic
attraction to the natural contents and to specific landscape configurations. Additionally, the
environmental features were also determined as having profound impact on human
functioning and can reduce stress and other adverse psycho-emotional health conditions.
However, contact opportunities with the reviewed environmental components are
significantly minimized in the contemporary urban life and living. Thus, the research by
Joyce posits that the evolution can have subtle but nontrivial adverse impact on human
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 13
beings’ psycho-physiological well-being. The researcher recommends the need to integrate
the critical components of both the built environment’s natural contents and structural
landscape features as an effective approach to counter this challenge. The researcher proceeds
to discuss several practical solutions for the problem, including the use of fractal geometry of
nature to the literal imitation of natural contents and objects like plants in an architectural
context. If successfully, the result of such innovative amalgamations would be very
interesting and fulfilling from an architectural, interior design, environmental, and aesthetic
2.2 Architectural Examples of Applying Psychology
2.2.1 Just Looking at Buildings Can Give People Headaches
From just looking at the above image, it is evident that the human brain finds it more
difficult and sophisticated processing buildings’ images compared to its processing of
natural scenes and landscapes. Additionally, in his article ‘Just Looking at Buildings Can
Give People Headaches—Here’s How to Minimize the Problem’ and published by
ArchDaily, Rory Scott argues that the extra workload entailed in looking at processing of
images of buildings can result in physical pain, headaches, discomfort and migraines. The
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 14
cause of the headaches and accompanying problems are often thought to be the direct result
of the effect of the monotonous stripes patterns that are found in images of buildings and
According to Wilkins, the causes can be the stripes on interior finishes like escalator
stair treads, carpets and doormats. It is therefore very unfortunate that such types of stripe
patterns are increasingly becoming prevalent in modern architectural designs. Additionally,
repetitive stripe patterns are also increasingly becoming more perverse in the very
buildings’ architectural structures as their designs continuously become larger and more
structural efficiency- and cost-driven. Furthermore, Scott (2018) asserts that the instinct of
the architect and the interior designer can also sometimes worsen the problem, especially
due to their attempt to artistically express the structure.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 15
2.2.2 Hospital and Healthcare Architecture
Figure 1New designs of hospitals emerge with the concept of healing architecture.
The medical practitioner and researcher of Kopvol, Dr. Tanja Vollmer, explored a group
of sick people’s reaction to buildings and built spaces in German hospitals. After analyzing the
data, she discovered that the current buildings and build spaces lacks any significant impact on
the patient’s healing process of the patients in a majority of the German hospitals. She
determined that when patients were left to wait for services in the sterile corridors without any
privacy accorded to them, their attention levels and feelings of stress got significantly lowered
and enhanced, respectively. The implication for the former outcome is the existence of a
significantly higher chance of patients missing crucial health-related information from the care
providers. The prevailing design lack spaces of privacy, security and retreat. Additionally, the
researcher also noted that the neon lighting and widespread noise within the facilities
significantly disrupt the day-night rhythm, and also hinders the patients’ recovery.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 16
Accordingly, as a remedy to the problems related to current (traditional) hospital designs,
Vollmer designed and popularized the “healing architecture”. The architectural design works
by prioritizing the patient’s healing, privacy, security, retreat and other related needs and views
the clinic construction’s usefulness as being insubordinate to the latter. However, the
architectural conception of Tanja Vollmer’s healing architecture is still new to most architects.
Thanks to her scientific research, Tanja Vollmer managed to design and popularize useful
hospital architecture from the patients’ perspective. Many hospitals and healthcare units,
especially in Germany, are fast adopting the healing architecture in their buildings and built
For instance, the Berlin Charité implemented the healing architecture in its intensive care
unit (ICU) successfully. Within the facility, architects have recreated two rooms to suit the
patients’ needs. Designed and recreated to match the healing architecture recommendations,
the rooms feature lots of lighting, wooden materials and warm colors, and to keep patients less
anxious, all the medical devices and equipment have been safely hidden from the patients’
Figure 2.Entrance hall of the psychiatric clinic. Figure 3. Wooden floors and broad hallways avoid
the feeling for patients of being locked in.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 17
sight. The noises produced by the medical machines are rechanneled into the surveillance
rooms during nighttime, thus ensuring a quiet and undisturbed sleep for the patients.
In yet another study, Tanja Vollmer designed and popularized four practical
recommendations to help accelerate the cancer patients’ healing process. First, she
recommends the need to mimic or imitate nature in designing and building buildings and built
environments in hospitals. She argues that such a design has a significant healing impact on
patients as they enable the sick to regain their strength and control over their ailments, and also
minimize stress, anxiety and depression related to such sicknesses. Secondly, Vollmer
recommends for hospitals to separate the speaking and examination rooms to enable patients to
create intimacy. Third, she suggests that meeting corners be designed to allow the possibility
of a three-way conversion between patients, doctors (or healthcare providers) and their relative
on the same level.
Additionally, she asserts that such a design should neither have blinding light conditions
nor protective desk walls. The University Hospital Tübingen, a psychiatric clinic, also recently
applied the healing architecture theory for its new building. First, architects used wood for the
flooring of all the available floor spaces. Secondly, they designed all the build spaces in such a
manner that they allow the penetration of daylight into the rooms, and that they are also wide
and spacious in size. Consequently, this spatial allocation of the spaces has significantly helped
the hospital solve the “locked-in feeling” that patients experience sometimes. To date, the
healing architecture has been successful in meeting all the hospitals expectations of its design
and construction objectives. Additionally, a research survey aimed at comparing the healing
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 18
process rate between the old and new building demonstrates a substantive decline in the
coercive measures against such conditions as body fixation and the administration of
compulsory medication to patients in crisis situation by about 80%.
2.2.3 Rush University Medical Center
Figure 5 Cylindrical light wells with trees in the middle bring a lot of sunlight and nature into
the entrance hall.
Another hospital that has used the healing architecture approach is the Chicago-based
Rush University Medical Center. Perkins Will, an architecture company, designed the facility.
First, the firm designed the façade in such a manner that cylindrical light wells allow plenty of
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 19
sunlight to penetrate the building. Secondly, the designers also include green indoor planting
zones and a rooftop garden as recreational oases or spaces. To achieve the most optimal
people-driven design and best adapt the building to user needs, the architects incorporated
recommendations based on research findings on how patients and clinicians use the building to
the building and its built spaces.
2.2.4 Workplace Architecture: Zaha Hadid’s design of Galaxy SOHO Beijing
The workplace analysis field has been subjected to vast number of researches recently.
Neil Usher is a workplace expert and consultant who spent most of his professional years
designing better means to improve the workplace. In one of his longest endeavors, he spent
several years exploring the factors that can be used to increase wellbeing, productivity and
effectiveness in the workplace. He finally identified 12 factors. First, he recommends every
workplace to have access to as much natural or daylight as practicable while also offering the
Figure 6 Daylight study of Zaha Hadid’s design of Galaxy SOHO Beijing.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 20
users the choice for shutting the light away when such a requirement arises. According to
Chellappa et al, bright office lighting significantly enhances adult workers’ performance in the
workplace. In one of their extensive researches in the area, scientists from the Lighting
Research Center have determined that architectural designs that allow daylight’s penetration or
access into the building and built spaces can significantly enhance the comfort and productivity
level of their occupants and cause the visual and mental stimulation that is required to
regulation the natural biorhythm amongst human beings.
Secondly, Neil Usher asserts that offices and general workplaces need to offer enough
space, i.e. the office-space per person ration should be a minimum of 6 square meters/per user.
Thus, it is only sensible that good working environments account for and fulfill each user’s
socio-physiological needs, and therefore, offer a well-positioned and welcoming space for
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 21
4.2.5 Housing Architecture
In an extensive study to explore the impact of accommodation spaces’ quality on human
beings, Danny Friedman determined that temporary, overcrowded “poor quality,
overcrowded, and temporary accommodation have an impact on health, well-being, and the
likelihood of criminality and educational attainment”. In yet another research on the same
area, Joan Meyers-Levy, a highly reputable scientist, determined that there is a very high
correlation between ceiling heights within buildings and built spaces and the occupants’
thinking styles. On the one hand, the researcher determined that high-ceiling rooms with airy
spaces, the occupants tend to have a feeling of more freedom, and thus, their thinking style
gravitates more towards the abstract type.
Figure 7 Pruitt-Igor was torn down only 18 years after its construction.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 22
On the other hand, she determined that in low-ceiling rooms with stuffed spaces, the
occupants tend to have a feeling of less freedom, and thus, tend to be better at tasks that
demand great focus or attentiveness to the problem’s or object’s details. In other words, the
latter environments support more analytical thinking. The implication of the study is that
individuals and organizations needs to use more expansive spaces with expansive rooms
when they want to support or facilitate creative thinking and solutions amongst users.
The finding from another study by Dr. Dak Kopec also corroborates Joan Meyers-Levy’s
research findings and related recommendations. Dr. Kopec, the Boston Architectural
College’s director of design of human health, determined in his study that there is a strong
linkage between “micro-apartments” and problems like drug abuse, domestic violence and
psychological problems. According to the research, these problems are particularly prevalent
amongst those aged between 30 years and 40 years primarily because the individuals in this
age group often face several stress factors or crisis, such as those related to adverse familial
problems and demanding job conditions. Therefore, in the research, the researcher determined
that living arrangements with minimal spaces can apparently lead to and/ or enhance alcohol
use, e.g., as was shown amongst college students. Additionally, the findings from this study
also strongly suggest that children growing and living in “micro-apartments” have or are
likely to develop concentration trouble.
There have also been various examples of failed or failing architectural designs. The St.
Louis-based Pruitt-Igoe public housing is amongst these failed projects. When it was built in
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 23
1954, various architectural experts praised and relied on the model of the Pruitt-Igoe public
building due to what they argued that it wasted zero space for semi-private areas.
Unfortunately, due to its very attribute that it had been praised for, the building would soon
attract a lot of cases of vandalism and substantial crime, leading its whole demolition 18 years
later following its construction.
Apparently, as researchers determined, the complex allowed no interaction amongst
residents or users at all. In a research carried by Leon Festinger years later after the complex’s
demolition, and referenced in Soler et al (2018), houses that are designed to allow spaces for
semi-private areas, and thus, encourage casual encounters and interactions amongst neighbors
or inhabitants in a building or build space. These casual encounters promote positive
interaction amongst inhabitants, and therefore, can significantly reduce crime while
enhancing pro-social behavior amongst users.
2.3 The relationship between Architecture and Interior Design
The realization that the roles, service expectations and methodologies of both architecture
and interior design are increasingly and continually undergoing tremendous evolution within
an already shifting socio-economic and political culture is a critical need in both these study
and practice areas. Consequently, it is safer to state that a professional stature develops within
an increasingly dynamic state of examination and critical re-examination associated with the
contemporary social value system, economic system and professional culture. The highly
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 24
specialized and targeted professionalism status is further reinforced by an intellectual rigor
and enduring theoretical and process evaluations.
Another critical fundamental requirement of ongoing assessment in facilitating
interrelated participants in a setting that are conducive to learning, clarifying and sharing
contemporary issues impacting all the design-related professionals and professions dedicated
to the spaces existing within and around the building and build’ environment’s shell and the
specific architectural condition. Traditionally, the architectural and interior design disciplines
perceive themselves as being both singular and distinctive.
The primary reason for this view is that, on the one hand, the fields perceive themselves
as offering specialized service roles while on the other hand, they have both been boundary-
tied by professional legislations. The ambiguous distinctiveness in the relationship between
architectural and interior design disciplines has further been reinforced by the existence of a
protective “turf mentality” that the professional and licensure organizations in the respective
fields have often aggressively advanced and guarded. Hildebrandt (2005) further attempt to
highlight and alleviate the problem related to how it is hard to define the boundary between
the two services. He states that although the public already have clear a boundary-line
between the two services, i.e. that interior design is mostly about the inside of buildings and
built spaces whereas architecture is concerned with the outside of buildings and built spaces,
the complexity of an in-between ‘‘interior architecture’’ significantly obscures this oft-
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 25
Rather, he argues that shat should be clear, especially to relatively small number of
journalists,, academics and professionals, is the existence of new sets of circumstances and
conditions under which the contemporary society operates, and which requires a shift in
thinking; that is, there is a need to take new approaches for which creative solutions for new
problems may be created.
In a his 2006 social research report published by the Scottish Executive Social Research
and titled ‘A Literature Review Of The Social, Economic And Environmental Impact Of
Architecture And Design’, Morris Hargreaves aimed to gather sufficient national and
international evidence of the socio-economic and environmental effect of architecture and
design, both negative and positive, to inform new design with a view to improving life
quality. The literature review was commissioned by the Scottish Executive in light of the
Policy on Architecture for Scotland’s development and to offer better access to information
regarding the architecture and design’s impact in many of the life’s spheres. The research data
was drawn from a total of 158 organizations who supplied 195 documents from all over the
United Kingdom, mainland Europe (especially Scandinavia), and as far as New Zealand and
While collecting data, the researchers’ main intention was to gather scientific evidence,
including on the impact and of the building and design factors giving rise to those impacts.
The researcher solely focused the review on the buildings’ and built spaces’ end-users, and
the review process was conducted between 1995 and 2005. Additionally, to enable the
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 26
amalgamation of qualitative and case study evidence’ narrative review with quantitative
evidence, the researchers adopted the ‘best-evidence synthesis’ approach developed by Slavin
(1986). The researcher states that although there are much case-study evidences, limited
robust quantitative research has been conducted using the end-users.
There are several evidences demonstrating architectural design’s contribution on end-
users’ stress and satisfaction levels that have emerged from the review. These examples are
especially in UK hospitals, notably, Poole hospital and Mill View mental health unit in
Brighton. At Poole hospital, there is evidence suggesting that at least 72% of the patients
housed within the new unit have the highest rating that they could for overall appearance,
compared with only 37% of the patients housed within the old units. The evidence ay Pool
hospital has further been corroborated with those sourced at the new Mill View hospital
mental health unit wherein the staff judged patients as significantly less aggressive
concerning their propensity to physical violence and verbal abuse. Additionally, regarding the
duration that patients needed to spend in the ICU, the findings suggests that it was reduced
from 13.1 days to 3.9 days, translating to about 70% reduction.
Essentially, the architectural design’s ability to contribute towards the staffs’ and
patients’ health and well-being is well-documented in the US, especially in the research
conducted in the area by Ulrich (1984). To accomplish his research goals, Ulrich (1984)
managed to successfully link the benefits of having windows in hospital buildings and built
areas within view with relatively greater work satisfaction levels amongst nurses and
similarly shorter postoperative hospital stays amongst patients who undergo surgical
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 27
operations. Furthermore, he also managed to demonstrate that viewing nature could result in
substantial restoration and positive changes within minimal time duration of at most five
minutes in brain electrical activity, muscle tension, heart activity and blood pressure.
Similarly, 2003 CABE research in the UK substantially corroborates the study by Ulrich
(1984). The findings from the CABE study suggest how patients’ health and well-being can
be substantially impacted by landscaped [hospital] buildings and built spaces.
5.1.2 Residential properties
‘‘The Value of Urban Design’’ is a literature review study that was commission by CABE
and DETR to determine whether occupants perceived architectural designs of residential
properties as having impacts of their new areas’ identity. The findings from all the reviewed
case studies suggested that the occupants felt that the developments contributed to some extent
towards a new identity for their areas. For instance, while the Barbirolli Square in Manchester,
UK, provided new cultural facilities; the Exchange Quay in Salford, UK, offered its landmark
via color and height to the new areas identity.
Unfortunately, the reviewed case studies also show that the residents do not always
positively view these impacts. For instance, one occupant characterized the Exchange Quay’s
regeneration impact was ‘soulless out of town estate’; residents blamed Waterfront in Dudley,
UK, for ruining Brierley Hill town; and, while other occupants yet saw the Standard Court in
Nottingham, UK, as not valuing its site’s historical associations. Additionally, there are yet
other cases that associate a place’s regeneration with the local resident communities’
displacement and increased residential prices.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 28
One point of concurrence, however, is that at the core of people’s perception of a good
residential place includes access to good facilities, low crime rates, and high safety and security
levels. For instance, places with more walkers and cyclists and slower car speeds are often
viewed as being safer for children’s outdoor play and school-walking. Similarly, residents often
view residential areas with houses overlooking each other or streets as safer. Furthermore,
official crime statistics and researches findings suggest that such residential areas are safer and
have comparatively minimal burglary rates.
5.1.3 Public space
The retail parks and hypermarkets’ emergence and concurrent high street economy
decline have resulted in the progressive but dramatic decline in the number of people walking
to public spaces and social amenities. For instance, research statistics suggests that the
distance walked per year per individual has drastically reduced from 410 km/year in 1975/76
to 298 km/year in 1998/2000. Thus, the dwindling local economies can be deemed to be the
indirect cost on the health of people. Yet in a another research commissioned by Detroit,
Schulz (2002) shows how poorer areas have comparatively more liquor stores but lesser
access to commercial and recreational facilities and fewer supermarkets.
Unfortunately, these widespread physical conditions in within these poorer
neighborhoods often work against healthy behaviors or habits like eating fresh, nutritious and
dietary-balanced foods and engaging in regular exercises. Additionally, in the paper titled
‘‘Green Spaces, Better Places’’ (cited in McIntyre, 2006), The Urban Green Space Taskforce
reported that a significantly greater portion of investments in parks has been worthwhile,
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 29
primarily because it adds value to renewal and regeneration, while also tremendously
contributing to cost savings in other areas like environmental management, education and
3 HUMANIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGY
3.1 What is Psychology
The American Psychology Association (APA) defines psychology as the scientific study
of the human mind and behavior. However, the definition cannot be taken as definitive as it is
too simplistic to the extent that it substantially ignores the psychology field as a
multidimensional discipline, including several study subfields like social behavior, clinical
study, health, sports, human development and cognitive studies, just to name but a few.
Additionally, the field has undergone dramatic transformation and evolution over the years.
In the early 20TH Century, the psychological branch developed and popularized by
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the most dominant branch. As described in the 2019
publication titled ‘‘What is Psychology’’ by Simply Psychology, Sigmund Freud popularized
the notion that people could get healed from their diseases by making their unconscious
motivations and thoughts conscious, a practice that would enable them gain insight. Since the
time of Sigmund Freud, the psychological field has been subjected to deeper scrutiny, and
thus, tremendous evolution and expansion.
3.2 The Relationship Between Design and Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 30
Generally, the field of design psychological is a relatively new cross-subject in the field
of design and psychology. According to Sun, Wand & Sun (2013), design psychology forms
the design concept’s basis and skills, i.e. it is an auxiliary subject area that facilitated the
creation of the design concept; and thus, stipulating the presence of close relationship
between the two. Thanks to design psychology, the contemporary user-centered architectural
designs have significantly pushed designers into reconsidering their approach towards their
work by going deeper into the target audience’s understanding. In his book titled “The Design
of Everyday Things”, Donald A Norman describes a design as an act of communication.
Therefore, the designer needs to have a deeper understanding of the target audiences’
needs and insights. In order to achieve such a critical need, designers ought to consider
practicing the psychological principles related to human motivations, aspirations and behavior.
Additionally, for a more effective and positive outcome, designers might also consider
applying psychology in the creative process as the science would offer them the close
understanding of the target audience. Accordingly, in the 2017 article titled ‘‘Psychology in
Design. Principles Helping to Understand Users’’ commissioned and published by UX Planet,
Tubik Studio writes that psychological knowledge is necessary during the design process as it
helps architectural designers to create designs that can make users perform the actions
expected of them, including contacting teams or making purchases.
4. INTERIOR SPACE AND PSYCHOLOGY
4.1 The Effect of Indoor Light on People’s Mood
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 31
The topic on light’s effect on the human beings’ cognitive functions is a well-researched
and documented area. For instances, practical researches have often determined that brightly-
illuminated spaces can substantially enhance the level of cognitive performance in healthy
adults, school children and patients who are experiencing having dementia which is at its early
stages. Additionally, other studies suggest that effective environmental lighting conditions
have a substantial impact on humans being’s psycho-behavioral processes, including their
cognition, mood and circadian rhythms. Similarly, building designs that allow the penetration
of a lot of sunlight into the building and built spaces have also been determined to be able to
reduce energy demands, and as being supportive of human health and activities and cognitive
Furthermore, current research findings also suggests that clean, easy-to-orientate-in
architecture supports its’ occupants’ well-being, has good illumination, provides a large and
open view, and provides nice ornamentation. Finally, the lighting fixtures’ styles significantly
contribute to amenity (A10). Direct lighting, and ceiling color and shapes are low cost and
economical elements that designers can use to improve the amenity’s perception.
Furthermore, the direct lighting style and lighting fixtures’ layout can also be used for the
4.2 How does indoor air affect people?
4.3 The effect of home colors on people’s mood
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 32
Color forms a vital component of our daily lives and its presence is perverse in our
perception of everything. Several research findings, including those by Hemphill (1996);
Lang (1993); & Mahnke (1996), suggests that colors have can significantly impact human
being’s feelings and emotions. For example, according to Ballast (2002) & Wexner (1982),
the blue color is oft associated with the feeling of comfort and security, yellow with
cheerfulness, purple with dignity and stateliness, orange with distressing and upsetting
feeling, and red with excitement. Furthermore, research findings by Linton (1999) & Saito
(1996) indicates that some colors may be associated with various emotions, and some
emotions with various colors. For instance, whereas the green color has a relaxing and retiring
effect, it also has both negative and positive impressions like guilt, tiredness, naturalness,
quietness, and refreshment (Davey, 1998, Mahnke, 1996, Saito, 1996). Similarly, the red
color, which is often used to symbolize dynamism and dominance, has a stimulating and
exciting effect. However, it also associated with both negative and positive impressions like
intensiveness, rage, bloodiness, aggressiveness, warmth, passion strength and activeness.
In the same note, the color-emotions relations has often been closely linked to color
preferences, i.e. whether an individual perceives a particular color as eliciting negative or
positive feelings. According to researches by Adams & Osgood (1973) and Eysenck (1941),
there are various colors that have been determined to be highly preferred by people regardless
of their culture, racial, or age. For instance, Hungarian (1968) determined red and blue to be
the most preferred colors amongst Americans, although they were less preferred in other
cultures. Other studies have also determined unique color preference tendencies both between
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 33
two or more countries, and with respect to geographical regions, gender and age within the a
particular country (Saito, 1996; Kaya, Epps & Hall, 2004).
4.4 How to harness psychology to improve resident’s wellbeing
Spatial design adequacy (SDA) is the term used to describe the spatial design qualities
with the ability to satisfactorily satisfy the actual space’s occupants. On the other hand, comfort
or amenity describes subjective satisfaction, and is often dependent on the occupant’s own
experiences, and socio-cultural and personal backgrounds. Again, convenience or efficiency
relates to the occupants’ subjective satisfaction when they are not stressed as a result of the
agreeableness between the spatial conditions and specific behaviors and activities. In their
research article titled ‘‘The Effect of Interior Design Elements and Lighting Layouts on
Prospective Occupants’ Perceptions of Amenity and Efficiency in Living Rooms’’, Lee,
Alzoubi and Kim, (2017) examined the effect of interior design elements on the prospective
occupant’s amenity and efficiency perception in a residential space. The researchers surveyed
thirty-one (31) prospective occupants using virtual environments consisting of various
amalgamation of interior design components.
The researchers discussed the prospective occupant’s views in terms of their affordability
and satisfaction and then statistically interpreting the findings before having a detailed
discussing on the spatial factors affecting overall satisfaction. After analysing the results, the
researchers determined the interior design elements’ perceived affordace to have been
significantly influenced by concrete and priming behaviors in a space. The colors, surfaces, and
materials were contributed weakly to the space’s perception. Therefore, the prospective
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 34
occupants’ evaluative perception processing elaborations were not effectively activated in the
SDA’s assessment in relation to the colors, surfaces, and materals in a space. To summaroze,
one of the lessons from the study is that the vacant areas’ location, sofa arrangement, and the
television’s location in a space play crucial role towards amenity’s positive perceptions.
批注 [MOU8]: •A conclusion is required. (where you
summarise your argument and findings, and perhaps
pose questions for further investigation )
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 35
(PDF) Architectural Psychology (2016). Available at:
20 November 2020).
Alexander, L. (1956) ‘Therapeutic process in electroshock and the newer drug therapies:
Psychopathological considerations’, Journal of the American Medical Association. American
Medical Association, 162(10), pp. 966–969. doi: 10.1001/jama.1956.02970270026009.
APA PsycNet (2011). Available at: https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/2010-21055-001 (Accessed:
21 June 2020).
Colombo, B., Laddaga, S. and Antonietti, A. (2015) ‘ScienceDirect Psychology and design.
The influence of the environment’s representation over emotion and cognition. An ET study
on Ikea design’, Procedia Manufacturing, 3, pp. 2259–2266. doi:
Dunn, B. D. and Roberts, H. (2016) ‘Improving the capacity to treat depression using talking
therapies: Setting a positive clinical psychology agenda.’, in The Wiley handbook of positive
clinical psychology. Wiley Blackwell, pp. 183–204.
Hamdy Mahmoud, H.-T. (2017) ‘The Academic Research Community Publication The
International Conference : Cities’ Identity Through Architecture and Arts (CITAA) Interior
Architectural Elements that Affect Human Psychology and Behavior’. doi:
批注 [MOU9]: Try to use a broad range of high-quality,
1.Be careful when using the internet for research:
chances are that information from the web is trivial,
wrong or out of date. Be discriminating about your web
research. Major university department websites and staff
websites (ending in .ac.uk or .edu) as well as sites by
major organisations can be great resources (museums,
learned societies, galleries etc – often with .org). Other
sites, especially if they do not contain author
information, are often not only useless but misleading.
2. So personally, I think we should delete
these references and add more from books.
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 36
Hargreaves Mcintyre, M. (2006) Education A Literature Review of the Social, Economic and
Environmental Impact of Architecture and Design A LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE
SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ARCHITECTURE AND
DESIGN. Available at: www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch (Accessed: 20 November 2020).
James, S. L. et al. (2018) ‘Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years
lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–
2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017’, The Lancet.
Lancet Publishing Group, 392(10159), pp. 1789–1858. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7.
Joye, Y. (2007) ‘Architectural Lessons from Environmental Psychology: The Case of
Biophilic Architecture’, Review of General Psychology. SAGE PublicationsSage CA: Los
Angeles, CA, 11(4), pp. 305–328. doi: 10.1037/1089-2622.214.171.1245.
Kaya, N., Epps, H. H. and Hall, D. (2004) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COLOR AND
EMOTION: A STUDY OF COLLEGE STUDENTS.
Lee, S., Alzoubi, H. and Kim, S. (2017) ‘The Effect of Interior Design Elements and Lighting
Layouts on Prospective Occupants’ Perceptions of Amenity and Efficiency in Living Rooms’,
Sustainability. MDPI AG, 9(7), p. 1119. doi: 10.3390/su9071119.
Psychology in Design. Principles Helping to Understand Users. | by Tubik Studio | UX Planet
(2017). Available at: https://uxplanet.org/psychology-in-design-principles-helping-to-
understand-users-10bcf122f4b0 (Accessed: 20 November 2020).
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 37
Soler, J. E. et al. (2018) ‘Light modulates hippocampal function and spatial learning in a
diurnal rodent species: A study using male nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus)’,
Hippocampus. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 28(3), pp. 189–200. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22822.
Sun, J., Wang, Z. Y. and Sun, X. Z. (2013) ‘The relationship between design concept and
design psychology’, in Applied Mechanics and Materials, pp. 712–715. doi:
Wang, P. S. et al. (2007) ‘Use of mental health services for anxiety, mood, and substance
disorders in 17 countries in the WHO world mental health surveys’, Lancet. NIH Public
Access, 370(9590), pp. 841–850. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61414-7.
Weinthal, L. (ed.). (2011), Toward a New Interior: An Anthology of Interior Design Theory. Princeton Architectural Press.
Taylor, M. and Preston, J. (eds.). (2006). Intimus: Interior Design Theory Reader. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
• Images should be placed close to the text that they support. They can be indexed in the text: e.g. ‘Le Corbusier’s first design for Algiers (Fig.3)’
• – There should be captions for all images and a reference to its source in the bibliography
• – The text will need to have paragraph breaks where appropriate. You can either mark these with an indentation or a line break and no indentation. Whichever you use, be consistent
• – You should use clear sub-titles for new chapters. A chapter can have a number and a title
• – Half-empty pages are acceptable at the end of an introduction or chapter, but not halfway through chapters or sections (unless you have deliberately chosen another approach to the formatting which should be agreed beforehand with your tutor)
PSYCHOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & INTERIOR DESIGN 38
• – Refer to essays in edited books or journals to get a sense of rhythm for paragraph breaks and the occasional empty line between sections
• – Always use page numbers • – Use an easy to read font (serif tends to be easier than sans serif) at 11 or 12
• – 1.2 – 1.5 spacing • – Margins no less than 2.54cm (so your tutor can add comments)