# University of Phoenix Statistics Questions

I think you have your independent and dependent variables confused. Your research question should read “is there a relationship between education level, race and income?” Where income is your dependent variable and race and education level are your independent variables. This gets at what you’ve stated your research question is, but your research question is too broad. The variables, such as discrimination, are comprised of many different factors, each one a variable in itself, so you need to focus the study more so that each variable measures just one thing.

You’ve also switched around the hypothesis and null hypothesis. The null is a statement of no difference or no relationship.

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RES/710 v5
Course Project Worksheet – Variables and Levels of Measurement
Complete the following tables.
General Research Information
Student Name: Samantha Powell
Topic: Poverty in The Black Community.
Revised Research Question: How does discrimination affect African Americans from rising above poverty?
Hypothesis: Poverty among African Americans is not a result of discrimination and lack of adequate education.
Null Hypothesis: Poverty among African Americans results from discrimination and lack of adequate education.
Independent Variables
Independent
Variables (IVs)
Poverty In the Black
Community.
Justification for IV
This variable justifies being the
independent variable in my study
since it is not affected by any other
variable. According to this study,
poverty among black Americans is
the main reason whites look down
upon black Americans.
Level of
Measurement
Justification for Level of Measurement
The level of poverty in
the black community in
America is ordinal.
This means that it can
be categorized and
ranked. It can be
categorized and ranked
according to color. It is
because it can be
measured when one
looks at the poverty
When you look at the poverty level
between the whites and the black
Americans, African Americans have a
lower average income than Whites and an
equal average income as Latinos on a
national level. There is a significant
relationship between poverty and
discrimination. African Americans are
more impoverished than any other race
(Mode et al., 2016). From 1972-2021, the
African American population was shown
Course Project Worksheet: Variables and Levels of Measurement
RES/710 v5
Page 2 of 4
Independent
Variables (IVs)
Justification for IV
Level of
Measurement
Justification for Level of Measurement
level among black
Americans and whites.
to live below the poverty line, which is a
higher percentage than any other race in
America (Iceland, 2019).
Level of
Measurement
Justification for Level of Measurement
Dependent Variable
Dependent Variable
(DV)
Justification for DV
Discrimination
Discrimination is the dependent
variable in this study since it
depends on other issues for it to fit,
called discrimination. In America,
some of the reasons they are
discriminated against are their low
level of education and poverty,
leading to their incapability to put
up well with whites (LaCosse et al.,
2021).
The measurement of
discrimination in the
United States of
America is nominal.
Since ethnic
background cannot be
rated, it is always
shown as minimumlevel data. However,
you can select the
measuring level for
dependent factors.
A quantitative approach is employed
when category data is further
subcategorized into distinct types. The
ordinal measurements scale is applied to
rank attribute values, while the range and
ratio measuring levels are only
appropriate for numeric values. The
interval and ratio scales are useless since
nationality is a variable. The cardinal
evaluation scale is flawed since ethnicity
can be prioritized or prioritized.
Nationality is a variable that can be
broken into nominal scales.
Education.
In education, test scores are
dependent variables. The level of
Among the perfect
examples of a level of
The quantity between each group is
sometimes different. However, the
Course Project Worksheet: Variables and Levels of Measurement
RES/710 v5
Page 3 of 4
Dependent Variable
(DV)
Justification for DV
scores depends on the teachings
and how the student has been
learning. So, in this case, I
conclude that black Americans are
highly discriminated against in
everything, like in the classroom
setup and even the teaching staff
(LaCosse et al., 2021). So, this
makes education fall under the
dependent variable. It depends on
how the blacks are treated.
Level of
Measurement
Justification for Level of Measurement
measurement is
educational status.
Each educational level
might be given a
certain rank. The
cheapest ranking, for
instance, is a school
diploma, and the
greatest rank is a
dissertation.
educational status does rise from ninth
grade to Ph.D. levels. The gap between a
high school certificate and an honors
degree may be greater than the gap
between an associate’s degrees. The
difference between a bachelor’s and post
graduate diploma may also be wider than
between a master’s and a Ph.D. When all
variables are held constant, they can be
measured.
References
Course Project Worksheet: Variables and Levels of Measurement
RES/710 v5
Page 4 of 4
Mode, N. A., Evans, M. K., & Zonderman, A. B. (2016). Race, neighborhood economic status, income inequality, and mortality.
PLOS ONE, 11(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154535
LaCosse, J., Krusemark, D., Foltz, J., & Plant, E. A. (2021). Antiracism: Development and validation of a measure designed to
identify White Americans who proactively fight to end discrimination toward Black Americans. Group Processes &
Intergroup Relations, 13684302211048886.