# Walden University Analysis of Covariance Discussion

Week 8: Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

• The one-way ANOVA is a fantastic statistical tool if you just want to see if there are differences across group means but it does not provide the ability to control for any important variables. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) could be explained simply as a one-way ANOVA that adds a continuous variable as a control.
• As an example, a statistics professor may wish to understand what teaching approach is most useful in imparting statistical knowledge (a topic about which many statistics professors are very interested). The professor may use a different instructional approach in three different classes to determine which produces higher mean outcome scores. Using a one-way ANOVA does not control for the confounding aspect of the level of statistical knowledge that a student had coming into the course. The professor can administer a pre-test at the beginning of the term and now control for previously acquired statistics knowledge when comparing means.

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• In this week, you explore practice applying ANCOVA to given datasets and once again analyze quantitative research articles that apply this method.
• Learning Objectives

Students will:

• Apply ANCOVA in a dataset
• Analyze ANCOVA in a dataset

• Apply statistical software to analyze data
• Critique research studies that apply ANCOVA

• Learning Resources

• Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Chapter 17, “Analysis of Covariance” (pp. 688–725)This chapter equips you with the information to needed to assess nonequivalent comparison groups—a phenomenon often encountered in quasi-experimental research (and in Walden capstone studies).
• Datasets

In this course, your instructor will provide you with one dataset (Guided Sample Dataset: Statistics Anxiety) that will be used in several of the tutorial videos. You are encouraged to reproduce the analyses performed in the video using this dataset so you can compare your answers and check your understanding of how to do each analysis in SPSS. You will also be provided with three large datasets for you to use in application of the statistics you’re learning each week. The Statistics Anxiety dataset is not for use in your weekly Assignments. Your instructor may also recommend using a different dataset from the ones we have provided here, which is fine. Your instructor will share these datasets in the Doc Sharingsection of the classroom and as an Announcement.

• In this course, your instructor will provide you with one dataset (Guided Sample Dataset: Statistics Anxiety) that will be used in several of the tutorial videos. You are encouraged to reproduce the analyses performed in the video using this dataset so you can compare your answers and check your understanding of how to do each analysis in SPSS. You will also be provided with three large datasets for you to use in application of the statistics you’re learning each week. The Statistics Anxiety dataset is not for use in your weekly Assignments. Your instructor may also recommend using a different dataset from the ones we have provided here, which is fine. Your instructor will share these datasets in the Doc Sharing section of the classroom and as an Announcement.
• Required Media

Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2017h). Introduction to analysis of covariance [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 2 minutes.Begin each week of the course by viewing the Weekly Introduction video, in which experienced statistics Instructors, Dr. Matt Jones and Dr. Annie Pezalla, provide context for new learning, explain statistical methods in easy-to-understand language, and describe the learning activities you will need to complete. Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2017c). ANCOVA [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.Note:  The approximate length of this media piece is 7 minutes 15 seconds.This video provides step-by-step instructions that explain how to perform the statistical test required in Assignment 1.

• Collaboration Lab
• Collaboration Labs are offered throughout the course as places of academic refuge, where you can ask questions, offer insights, and interact with the Instructor as they provide global feedback to the group based on trends, common problems, and common strengths in student posts.

• As a peer, you are also encouraged to provide constructive, helpful feedback to your peers. Data analysts always benefit from the feedback of others. Your Collaboration Labs posts may be procedural (“How do I get the answer using the SPSS software?”), conceptual (“How does this relate to the other tests we have learned?”), or analytical (“What do my calculations actually mean in the context of my research question?”).
• Although not mandatory, this is an opportunity to interact and practice as you navigate the assignments, so you are highly encouraged to take part in this activity. Full participation in activities like these is a statistically significant predictor of success.

• Note that each week contains its own unique Collaboration Lab, so the Collaboration Lab should contain only posts related to this week’s topic and this week’s Assignments.
• To participate in this Collaboration Lab:Week 8 Collaboration Lab

• Assignment 1: ANCOVA in SPSS
• Earlier this week, you practiced using ANCOVA models with SPSS and, ideally, used the Collaboration Lab to ask, answer, and otherwise address any questions you had. In this Assignment, you apply what you learned to answer a social research question using ANCOVA. Hopefully you are not yet tired of comparing means!

• To prepare
• Review the datasets provided.

• Construct a research question based on one of those datasets.
• Pay attention to the assumptions of this test, and ask, “Does it make sense to interpret the mean of this dependent variable?”

• By Day 7
• The Assignment

• Use SPSS to answer the research question you constructed. Write an analysis in APA format, including title page, references, and an appendix, that includes your data output and addresses each of the tasks listed below. The content should be 2–3 pages, including setup of the assignment, results, and interpretation of results. Your SPSS output should be included as an appendix.
• What is the null hypothesis for your question?

• What research design(s) would align with this question?
• What dependent variable was used and how is it measured?

• What independent variable is used and how is it measured?

What are the possible implications of social change?

Early in your Assignment, when you relate which dataset you analyzed, please include the mean of the following variables. If you are using the Afrobarometer Dataset, report the mean of Q1 (Age). If you are using the General Social Survey Dataset, report the mean of Age. If you are using the HS Long Survey Dataset, report the mean of X1SES. See pages 713 and 714 in your Warner textbook for an excellent APA-compliant write-up of an ANCOVA.

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