# Wilkes University Analytical Chemistry Excel Statics Worksheet

Please Edit on EXCEL attached and answer the question in the word doc as directed in the file. Please do not copy work or answers from internet.

Introduction to Statistics, Using Microsoft Excel
*Note for Students: You may complete this assignment in collaboration with a partner or small
group. However, each student must submit INDIVIDUAL work. Students will submit this
handout with written answers and will EMAIL their OWN EXCEL file to the instructor.
This data set represents the masses of pennies collected by students at Hobart and William Smith
College under the direction of Dr. Elana Stennett. The pennies massed represent average coins
in circulation during the year 2016.
This Excel file has 7 sheets (or tabs) in it:
• “Original Data”
o This is the unaltered data set as it was sent to College.
o Data for each penny includes the year of production, the mass (in grams), and the
mint where it was produced. Pennies minted in Denver have a “D” beneath the
year printed on the penny; these coins are noted as Mint “D” in the data set.
Pennies minted in Philadelphia do not have a mark or letter printed beneath the
year on the penny and are noted as Mint “P” in the data set. A subtotal of pennies
per year of production are shown in the “n” row.
• “Column Data”
o This data includes all of the data from “Original Data,” however it has been sorted
into columns “Mass (g),” “Year,” and “Mint.”
o Labeling EACH penny with appropriate data (including mass, year, and mint) and
organizing the data into rows makes this data set much easier to sort and analyze.
• “#1 – #5 (with description)”
o All other sheets or tabs will be used to analyze the data set and solve each of the
problems below.
Solve the problems below by working with a partner or small group. Remember, EACH
student must submit INDIVIDUAL work, including submitting written responses to these
questions AND email their own Excel file showing their work, and thought process.
Please remember to include UNITS where appropriate. Make sure to LABEL your graphs,
including an appropriate TITLE and AXES. LABEL CELLS next to your calculated values – a
random number will mean nothing to you the next time you open this spreadsheet to review your
work. However, a cell with a formula that is clearly labeled will be very useful for you next time
you need to do statistical analysis (perhaps for lab reports!). If you are going through the work
to set up a spreadsheet for analysis, make it useful for the future and re-use it!
1. Histogram Year
• Copy the “Column Data” data into the “1. Histogram Year” sheet.
• Create a histogram showing the distribution of pennies massed by year, with “Year”
on the x-axis as a categorical variable, and “Number of Pennies” massed on the y-axis
as a numerical variable.
• Give the graph an appropriate title and label all axes. Make sure the font is at least
• The y-axis should have a minimum of 0, maximum of 70, with major and minor
tickmarks on the outside. The axis should be black (not grey, it is hard to see).
• The graph should NOT have gridlines and should have a think black border to help it
standout.
• Make the bars on the graph grey in color, with a thin (0.5 pt) black outline.
o Use the “Insert” “Chart” “Histogram” option (the icon with all BLUE bars).
Note: Do not confuse a histogram with a bar chart!
o Right click on the chart and use the “Select Data option: to ensure “Year” is on
the x-axis as a categorical variable, and “Number of Pennies” massed on the yaxis as a numerical variable.
o Right click on the x-axis and select “Format Axis.” The “Bins” are currently
dictating how wide your bars are. The default is “Automatic,” but that’s usually
not the best option. Try changing the bins to “By Category,” then changing the
bins width, number of bins, etc. What happens?
o You can also right click on the data series itself and select “Format Data Series”
to change the appearance of data.
Questions:
1a. Is the distribution of penny years Gaussian? Why or why not?
1b. Do expect all pennies in circulation to have a Gaussian distribution when sorted by year?
Why or why not?
2. Histogram Mass
• Copy the “Mass,” “Year,” and “Mint” data only from “Column Data” data into the
“2. Histogram Mass” sheet.
• Using “Sort and Filter” tool and “Custom Sort”, sort the data from low-to-high mass,
followed by old-to-recent year, and A-Z mint.
• Create a histogram showing the distribution of penny masses, with “Mass” on the xaxis as a categorical variable, and “Number of Pennies” massed on the y-axis as a
numerical variable.
• Make sure the graph is labeled appropriately and that the data is clear and easy to
Use the “Format Axis” and “Axis Options” for the x-axis to change the bins and bin widths
Questions:
2a. Using an “Automatic” bin setting, how many bins of data are presented?
What is the bin width?
2b. Set the number of bins to “20,” and bin width to “0.04.” What happens?
2c. Set the number of bins to “41,” and bin width to “0.02.” What happens?
2d. Set the bin width to “0.01.” What happens? How many bins are there?
2e. Using the histogram with a bin width of 0.01g, does the mass of pennies as a whole follow a
Gaussian distribution? Why or why not?
2f. What may cause the separation between low-mass pennies and high-mass pennies? (Cite
any sources you use to answer this question!) Does your data support this hypothesis?
2g. Do the groups of low-mass pennies and high-mass pennies exhibit a Gaussian distribution?
Why or why not? Is this what you would expect?
3. Outliers
• Copy data only from years 1975 and 1983 from “Column Data” into “3. Outliers”.
Questions:
3a. Is there an outlier in the 1975 data set? Support your answer.
3b. Is there an outlier in the 1983 data set? Support your answer.
3c. Is there a reasonable explanation for why the two data points questioned (one in 1975, one in
1983) appear different from the other masses in that given year?
3d. What should be done to the data set as a whole before performing additional analyses?
4. Pre-Post 1983
• Copy the “Column Data” data into the “4. Pre-Post 1983” sheet.
Questions:
4a. Is the mass of a penny produced from 1960-1982 different from the mass of a penny
5. “Known” Mass
• Copy data only from years 1983 to 2015 from “Column Data” into “5. Known Mass”.
Questions:
5a. According to the United States Mint1, the mass of a penny is 2.5000g. Do the masses of
pennies in this data set agree with the known? Support your answer.
1. United States Mint. Coin Specifications. https://www.usmint.gov/learn/coin-and-medalprograms/coin-specifications. (accessed September 2, 2018).
Mint
D
P
n
1960 1961 1964 1968 1969 1970
3,081 3,071 3,099 3,115
3,101 3,076 3,062 3,096
3,120 3,069
3,125
3,012
3,092
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
3,093 3,096 3,088 3,055 3,116 3,134 3,105 3,083 3,118
3,105
3,059
3,115 3,113 3,065
3,180
3,105
3,093 3,115 3,105
3,059
3,105
3,089
3,110
3,114 3,118 3,157 3,056 3,172 3,119
3,032 3,042
3,093
2
1
4
5
7
3
3,028 3,046 3,096
3,096 3,070 3,104
3,059 3,007
2,530
3,100
5
1
4
4
8
3,093 3,060 3,113 3,183
3,101 3,069 3,080 3,062
3,094
3,073 3,064
3,100
3,114 3,107
7
6
5
7
Masses (g)
1980
3,113
3,142
3,105
3,116
1981
3,117
3,089
3,142
1982 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
2,568 2,509 2,512 2,465 2,476 2,489 2,409 2,499 2,534
3,109
2,525
3,102
3,124
2,505 2,514 3,118
2,529 2,501 2,504 2,493
3,142
2,498
2,486
3,142
2,512
3,142
3,118
3,065
3,041 3,099 3,049 2,473 2,568 2,579 2,548
3,062 3,126 3,055
2,514 2,515 2,510
3,126 3,133
2,526 2,563 2,559
3,092
2,514 2,519 2,542
3,054
2,541 2,568 2,533
3,124
2,546
3,041
3,060
7
11
9
1
8
5
8
2,520 2,497 2,471 2,489 2,544 2,515 2,504 2,488
2,475
2,497 2,578 2,505 2,473 2,487 2,516
2,509
2,381 2,381 2,521 2,455 2,484
2,575
2,380 2,380
2,537 2,532
2,381 2,381
2,480 2,481
2,482 2,489
2,480 2,401
2,532
2,481
2,498
2,401
2,501
2,491
2,488
2,517
2,509
6
3
7
10
5
8
14
6
Masses (g)
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
2,525 2,501 2,501 2,476 2,484
2,514 2,483 2,496
2,496
2,510
2,500
2,524
2,481
2,503
2,503
2,519 2,480 2,492 2,481 2,514 2,486 2,495 2,483 2,517 2,495 2,529 2,516 2,431 2,487 2,524 2,511
2,487 2,492 2,499 2,509 2,499 2,452 2,475 2,514 2,498 2,381 2,578
2,500 2,480 2,490 2,549
2,509 2,475 2,485 2,491 2,488 2,493
2,474 2,500 2,499
2,517 2,494 2,538
2,509 2,483 2,496
2,513
2,470
2,498 2,470 2,514
2,493 2,484
2,510
2,477
2,480 2,498
2,401
2,508
2,520
2,496 2,482
2,478
2,501
2,487
2,536
2,487
4
5
8
6
4
9
5
4
8
3
4
1
5
6
8
2
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
2015
2,493
2,494 2,517 2,491 2,517
2,531
2,493 2,495
2,477
2,515 2,497
2,488 2,510
2,501 2,507
2,511
2,492
2,494
2,509
2,531
2,500
2,498
2,517
2,500
2,488
2,515
2,570
2,523
2,496
2,504
2,496
2,500
2,499
2,519
2,492
2,502
2,495
2,500
2,489
2,506
2,495
2,501
2,505
2,494
2,494
2,506
2,381
2,494
2,484
2,501
2,494
2,564
2,488
2,486
2,464
2,506
2,513
2,494
2,502
2,491
2,483
2,471
2,511
2,515
2,515
2,493
2,481
2,488
2,479
5
7
16
15
20
2,496
2,502
2,488
2,496
2,489
2,493
2,483
2,487
2,515
2,482
2,495
2,491
2,500
2,474
2,488
2,486
2,496
63
2,489
2,503
2,478
2,498
2,505
2,527
2,499
2,475
2,452
2,482
2,487
2,489
2,494
2,530
2,500
2,486
2,500
2,506
2,478
2,486
2,493
2,496
2,519
2,513
2,484
2,530
2,478
2,492
2,511
2,499
2,496
2,506
2,496
2,473
2,493
2,480
2,499
2,508
2,504
2,500
Mass (g)
3,114
3,093
3,118
3,081
3,101
3,157
3,032
3,071
3,076
3,120
3,056
3,042
3,099
3,062
3,069
3,125
3,012
3,092
3,172
3,115
3,096
3,119
3,093
3,105
3,105
3,105
3,110
3,096
3,088
3,059
3,028
3,096
3,055
3,046
3,070
3,059
3,116
3,115
3,093
3,096
3,104
3,007
2,530
3,100
3,134
Year
1960
1960
1961
1964
1964
1964
1964
1968
1968
1968
1968
1968
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1970
1970
1970
1971
1971
1971
1971
1971
1972
1973
1973
1973
1973
1974
1974
1974
1974
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1976
Mint
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
D
D
D
D
D
D
P
D
D
P
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
P
P
D
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
D
n (per year)
2
1
4
5
7
3
5
1
4
4
8
7
3,113
3,115
3,093
3,101
3,094
3,100
3,105
3,065
3,105
3,089
3,060
3,069
3,083
3,113
3,080
3,073
3,114
3,118
3,180
3,059
3,183
3,062
3,064
3,107
3,113
3,142
3,105
3,116
3,041
3,062
3,126
3,117
3,089
3,142
3,099
3,126
3,133
3,092
3,054
3,124
3,041
3,060
3,109
3,102
3,142
3,142
3,142
1976
1976
1976
1976
1976
1976
1977
1977
1977
1977
1977
1977
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1982
1982
1982
1982
1982
D
D
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
D
6
5
7
7
11
10
3,118
3,065
3,049
3,055
2,473
2,525
3,124
2,498
2,568
2,514
2,526
2,514
2,541
2,579
2,515
2,563
2,519
2,568
2,568
2,505
2,548
2,510
2,559
2,542
2,533
2,546
2,509
2,514
2,520
2,475
2,509
2,575
2,512
3,118
2,497
2,465
2,471
2,497
2,381
2,380
2,381
2,482
2,476
2,489
2,578
2,381
2,380
1982
1982
1982
1982
1982
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1984
1984
1984
1984
1984
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1986
1986
1986
1986
1986
1986
1987
1987
1987
1988
1988
1988
1988
1988
1988
1988
1989
1989
1989
1989
1989
D
D
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
8
5
8
6
3
7
10
2,381
2,489
2,532
2,498
2,501
2,489
2,529
2,544
2,505
2,521
2,409
2,501
2,515
2,473
2,455
2,537
2,480
2,480
2,499
2,504
2,504
2,487
2,484
2,532
2,481
2,401
2,481
2,401
2,491
2,488
2,517
2,509
2,534
2,493
2,486
2,512
2,488
2,516
2,525
2,519
2,487
2,509
2,501
2,480
2,492
2,475
2,509
1989
1989
1989
1989
1989
1990
1990
1990
1990
1990
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1993
1993
1993
1993
1993
1993
1994
1994
1994
1994
1995
1995
1995
1995
1995
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
P
P
D
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
5
8
14
6
4
5
2,501
2,492
2,499
2,485
2,483
2,493
2,401
2,478
2,476
2,481
2,509
2,491
2,496
2,484
2,484
2,514
2,499
2,488
2,486
2,452
2,493
2,513
2,510
2,508
2,501
2,536
2,487
2,514
2,524
2,503
2,495
2,475
2,483
2,483
2,514
2,474
2,496
2,481
2,517
2,498
2,500
2,470
2,477
2,520
2,495
2,381
2,499
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1997
1997
1997
1997
1997
1997
1998
1998
1998
1998
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2001
2001
2001
2001
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2003
2003
2003
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
D
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
8
6
4
9
5
4
8
3
2,500
2,503
2,529
2,578
2,516
2,496
2,431
2,500
2,517
2,498
2,487
2,480
2,494
2,470
2,480
2,496
2,510
2,524
2,490
2,538
2,514
2,498
2,482
2,487
2,511
2,549
2,493
2,492
2,494
2,509
2,531
2,500
2,498
2,517
2,500
2,488
2,515
2,570
2,494
2,531
2,477
2,523
2,496
2,504
2,496
2,500
2,499
2004
2004
2004
2004
2005
2006
2006
2006
2006
2006
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2009
2009
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
D
D
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
4
1
5
6
8
2
5
7
16
2,519
2,492
2,502
2,495
2,500
2,489
2,506
2,517
2,495
2,501
2,505
2,494
2,494
2,506
2,381
2,494
2,484
2,501
2,494
2,564
2,488
2,486
2,491
2,493
2,515
2,488
2,501
2,464
2,506
2,513
2,494
2,502
2,491
2,483
2,471
2,511
2,515
2,515
2,493
2,481
2,488
2,479
2,517
2,495
2,497
2,510
2,507
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
D
15
20
63
2,511
2,496
2,502
2,488
2,496
2,489
2,493
2,483
2,487
2,515
2,482
2,495
2,491
2,500
2,474
2,488
2,486
2,496
2,489
2,503
2,478
2,498
2,505
2,527
2,499
2,475
2,452
2,482
2,487
2,489
2,494
2,530
2,500
2,486
2,500
2,506
2,478
2,486
2,493
2,496
2,519
2,513
2,484
2,530
2,478
2,492
2,511
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
2,499
2,496
2,506
2,496
2,473
2,493
2,480
2,499
2,508
2,504
2,500
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Mass (g)
3,114
3,093
3,118
3,081
3,101
3,157
3,032
3,071
3,076
3,120
3,056
3,042
3,099
3,062
3,069
3,125
3,012
3,092
3,172
3,115
3,096
3,119
3,093
3,105
3,105
3,105
3,110
3,096
3,088
3,059
3,028
3,096
3,055
3,046
3,070
3,059
3,116
3,115
3,093
3,096
3,104
3,007
2,530
3,100
3,134
Year
1960
1960
1961
1964
1964
1964
1964
1968
1968
1968
1968
1968
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1970
1970
1970
1971
1971
1971
1971
1971
1972
1973
1973
1973
1973
1974
1974
1974
1974
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1976
Mint
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
D
D
D
D
D
D
P
D
D
P
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
P
P
D
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
D
n (per year)
2
1
4
5
7
3
5
1
4
4
8
7
3,113
3,115
3,093
3,101
3,094
3,100
3,105
3,065
3,105
3,089
3,060
3,069
3,083
3,113
3,080
3,073
3,114
3,118
3,180
3,059
3,183
3,062
3,064
3,107
3,113
3,142
3,105
3,116
3,041
3,062
3,126
3,117
3,089
3,142
3,099
3,126
3,133
3,092
3,054
3,124
3,041
3,060
3,109
3,102
3,142
3,142
3,142
1976
1976
1976
1976
1976
1976
1977
1977
1977
1977
1977
1977
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1982
1982
1982
1982
1982
D
D
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
D
6
5
7
7
11
10
3,118
3,065
3,049
3,055
2,473
2,525
3,124
2,498
2,568
2,514
2,526
2,514
2,541
2,579
2,515
2,563
2,519
2,568
2,568
2,505
2,548
2,510
2,559
2,542
2,533
2,546
2,509
2,514
2,520
2,475
2,509
2,575
2,512
3,118
2,497
2,465
2,471
2,497
2,381
2,380
2,381
2,482
2,476
2,489
2,578
2,381
2,380
1982
1982
1982
1982
1982
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1984
1984
1984
1984
1984
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1986
1986
1986
1986
1986
1986
1987
1987
1987
1988
1988
1988
1988
1988
1988
1988
1989
1989
1989
1989
1989
D
D
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
8
5
8
6
3
7
10
2,381
2,489
2,532
2,498
2,501
2,489
2,529
2,544
2,505
2,521
2,409
2,501
2,515
2,473
2,455
2,537
2,480
2,480
2,499
2,504
2,504
2,487
2,484
2,532
2,481
2,401
2,481
2,401
2,491
2,488
2,517
2,509
2,534
2,493
2,486
2,512
2,488
2,516
2,525
2,519
2,487
2,509
2,501
2,480
2,492
2,475
2,509
1989
1989
1989
1989
1989
1990
1990
1990
1990
1990
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1993
1993
1993
1993
1993
1993
1994
1994
1994
1994
1995
1995
1995
1995
1995
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
P
P
D
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
5
8
14
6
4
5
2,501
2,492
2,499
2,485
2,483
2,493
2,401
2,478
2,476
2,481
2,509
2,491
2,496
2,484
2,484
2,514
2,499
2,488
2,486
2,452
2,493
2,513
2,510
2,508
2,501
2,536
2,487
2,514
2,524
2,503
2,495
2,475
2,483
2,483
2,514
2,474
2,496
2,481
2,517
2,498
2,500
2,470
2,477
2,520
2,495
2,381
2,499
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1997
1997
1997
1997
1997
1997
1998
1998
1998
1998
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2001
2001
2001
2001
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2003
2003
2003
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
D
P
P
P
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
8
6
4
9
5
4
8
3
2,500
2,503
2,529
2,578
2,516
2,496
2,431
2,500
2,517
2,498
2,487
2,480
2,494
2,470
2,480
2,496
2,510
2,524
2,490
2,538
2,514
2,498
2,482
2,487
2,511
2,549
2,493
2,492
2,494
2,509
2,531
2,500
2,498
2,517
2,500
2,488
2,515
2,570
2,494
2,531
2,477
2,523
2,496
2,504
2,496
2,500
2,499
2004
2004
2004
2004
2005
2006
2006
2006
2006
2006
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2009
2009
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
D
D
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
4
1
5
6
8
2
5
7
16
2,519
2,492
2,502
2,495
2,500
2,489
2,506
2,517
2,495
2,501
2,505
2,494
2,494
2,506
2,381
2,494
2,484
2,501
2,494
2,564
2,488
2,486
2,491
2,493
2,515
2,488
2,501
2,464
2,506
2,513
2,494
2,502
2,491
2,483
2,471
2,511
2,515
2,515
2,493
2,481
2,488
2,479
2,517
2,495
2,497
2,510
2,507
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
D
D
D
D
D
15
20
63
2,511
2,496
2,502
2,488
2,496
2,489
2,493
2,483
2,487
2,515
2,482
2,495
2,491
2,500
2,474
2,488
2,486
2,496
2,489
2,503
2,478
2,498
2,505
2,527
2,499
2,475
2,452
2,482
2,487
2,489
2,494
2,530
2,500
2,486
2,500
2,506
2,478
2,486
2,493
2,496
2,519
2,513
2,484
2,530
2,478
2,492
2,511
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
D
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
2,499
2,496
2,506
2,496
2,473
2,493
2,480
2,499
2,508
2,504
2,500
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P

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